The leaf water extracts from Kedah and Kelantan have similar asco

The leaf water extracts from Kedah and Kelantan have similar ascorbic acid contents which was roughly threefold more than the water extracts of the stems. The ascorbic acid content in the leaf water extracts (260 and 277 mg/100 g of fresh tissue) was higher than that in several commercial vegetables (0.95–218 mg ascorbic acid/100 g of fresh tissue) ( Isabelle et al., 2010). Thus, the shoots of B. racemosa are excellent sources of ascorbic acid. Generally, flavonoids could be detected in all the extracts, although the ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves and stems from both locations had the highest flavonoid

contents, implying the see more presence of (mainly) semi-polar flavonoids. The flavonoid contents in the ethyl acetate extracts in this study (19.9–21.8 mg RE/g of freeze-dried tissue) were lower than that

Selleckchem Quizartinib in a previously reported ethanolic extract of B. racemosa leaves (38.6 mg RE/g of freeze-dried tissue) ( Nurul Mariam et al., 2008). This could be due to differences in the condition and location where the plant is grown, as well as the extraction solvent used. Nevertheless, the flavonoid content in this study was higher than those of several Chinese medicinal plants (0.50–158 mg RE/g of freeze-dried tissue) ( Liu et al., 2008), as well as Algerian medicinal plants (1.62–13.1 mg RE/g air-dried tissue) ( Djeridane et al., 2006). Carotenoids were detected mainly in the ethyl acetate extracts, which was in accordance with the less polar

characteristics of these compounds. Among the ethyl acetate extracts, Kelantan leaf had the highest carotenoid content, followed in descending order by Kedah leaf > Kelantan stem > Kedah stem. Green leafy vegetables are rich sources of carotenoids, such as lutein, zeaxanthin, α-carotene and β-carotene, which are either semi-polar or apolar (Khoo, Prasad, Kong, Cyclooxygenase (COX) Jiang, & Ismail, 2011). Xanthophylls are semi-polar carotenoids which are commonly found at high levels in vegetables, and hence will be mainly found in the ethyl acetate extracts (Khoo et al., 2011). Several in vitro   antioxidant assays were selected in this study, based on the ability of antioxidants to act as reducing agents (FRAP) and as radical-scavengers (DPPH, ABTS, O2- and NO radical-scavenging assays). Antioxidants act via several mechanisms, including as hydrogen/electron donors, metal ions chelators and through increasing the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Hence, the use of antioxidant assays that measure the different mechanisms of the antioxidant effect would provide a better insight into the true antioxidant potential of the extracts. Table 2 shows the ferric reducing capacities of the plant extracts. Generally, the water extracts showed high ferric reducing activities and the hexane extracts the least.

FIB-SEM microscopic analysis of the gelatine based films allowed

FIB-SEM microscopic analysis of the gelatine based films allowed visualisation of L. rhamnosus GG cells ( Fig. 1a and b). The addition of L. rhamnosus GG cell pellets in the edible film did not confer any noticeable modification to the structural conformation of the films ( Fig. 1b), apart from the presence of the bacterial cells embedded (tiny rod-like shapes as indicated by the arrows) in the plasticised gelatine matrix.

In both cases, the gelatine based films retained their cohesive, non-uniform, and reticular microstructure, as it has been also confirmed in previous studies ( Jeya Shakila, Jeevithan, Varatharajakumar, Jeyasekaran, & Sukumar, 2012). The addition of prebiotics resulted in detectable changes in the microstructure of the symbiotic films ( Selleckchem JQ1 Fig. 2). As is illustrated in the SEM micrographs, blending prebiotic fibre with gelatine prior to film formation resulted to a more compact and uniform Galunisertib structure, with no detectable interspaces or micropores, suggesting that prebiotics act as fillers of the interspaces of entangled gelatin network. Although in all cases no bacterial cells were detected on the surface of the probiotic edible films (data not shown), cross-sectional visualisation of films unveiled enhanced coverage (and consequently better barrier properties) of the bacterial cells

in the symbiotic edible films compared to those composed only of gelatine. No remarkable differences between the cross-sectional structure conformations of the films containing inulin, polydextrose and gluco-oligosaccharides were detected. It is also noteworthy that the cracks and corrugations observed in the case of polydextrose and gluco-oligosaccharides based

films are related to the carbon coating and not the film structure. Films comprised wheat dextrin maintained their compact, non-porous and void-less structure, albeit more reticular and fibrous-like structure were observed. However, it should be noted, that in all cases, prebiotics exerted a good compatibility and miscibility (possibly through hydrogen bond interactions) with gelatine as no phase separation 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl or aggregation phenomena were shown, further studies to fully characterise phase compatibility within the biopolymers were not included within this work as it was not the primary focus of the study. The viable counts of L. rhamnosus GG in film forming solution (start-point) and edible film (end-point) expressed on total solids basis (d.b.) are displayed in Fig. 3. The sub-lethal effects of the air drying step were found to be strongly dependent on the type of the plasticised substrate. More specifically, the addition of gluco-oligosaccharides and polydextrose provided the highest protection allowing the retention of the 60.68% and 26.36% of the initial number of living L. rhamnosus GG cells.

92 h, water content of 50 72% and temperature of 28 85 °C SSF is

92 h, water content of 50.72% and temperature of 28.85 °C. SSF is a technology that can propose alternative paths for

the reuse of agro-industrial waste, therefore decreasing possible environmental problems, as well as adding economic value to these co-products. The authors are thankful to the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) for granting the ITI (Industrial Technology Initiation) scholarship, and the Northeast Roxadustat mouse Brazil Bank (BNB) for granting financial support. “
“Proteases comprise the class of enzymes most used worldwide, accounting for 60% of the world’s total enzyme production (Gupta, Beg, & Larenz, 2002). This is due to the diversity of applications that these proteins, mainly alkaline proteases, have in various industries, e.g. food, detergents, pharmaceuticals (Espósito et al., 2009a and Klomklao et al., 2005). Several studies report that fish viscera can be used as an important source of PF-02341066 mw alkaline proteases (Bezerra et al., 2005, Khantaphant and Benjakul, 2010, Klomklao et al., 2009a and Souza et al., 2007). These residues, which are usually discarded, represent a significant source of these enzymes. The use of alkaline proteases from aquatic organisms, especially trypsin, has markedly increased in recent years, since some proteases are stable and active under harsh conditions (high temperature

and pH) and in the presence of surfactants or oxidising agents (Espósito et al., 2009b and Klomklao et al., 2005). Furthermore, the recovery of proteolytic enzymes from fish viscera represents an interesting alternative

when the aim is to minimise the economic losses and ecological hazards caused by this waste (Bougatef et al., 2007 and Souza et al., 2007). Trypsin (EC is one of the most studied fish digestive proteases. This enzyme belongs to the serinoproteases family and is responsible for many biological processes, e.g. protein digestion itself, Protein kinase N1 zymogen activation and mediation between the ingestion of food and assimilation of nutrients (Klomklao, Benjakul, Visessanguan, Kishimura, & Simpson, 2007). Trypsins have been extracted, purified and characterised from the viscera of various commercial fish, such as Oreochromis niloticus ( Bezerra et al., 2005), Katsuwonus pelamis ( Klomklao et al., 2009a) and Lutjanus vitta ( Khantaphant & Benjakul, 2010). Tropical regions are home to a large diversity of fish species with distinct feeding habits, which explain the differences among enzyme compositions of these organisms. The carnivorous fish, pirarucu (Arapaima gigas), is considered the largest freshwater fish in the world, reaching over 200 kg in weight and up to three metres in length, whose geographic distribution area predominantly covers the Amazon basin ( Nelson, 1994). A. gigas is considered a species of considerable commercial interest, and is one of the most highly priced species in the Brazilian fish market.

Based on our

Based on our findings, our initial hypothesis that the isomer pattern of total PFOS exposure can help to explain the isomer pattern found in human serum is rejected. Furthermore, current knowledge on isomer-specific differences in pharmacokinetics and metabolism of PFOS and/or precursors combined with the present data cannot explain the difference in the isomer pattern of the intake relative to the pattern in human serum. This discrepancy between PFOS isomer patterns in external and internal exposure could potentially be explained by: i) inaccurate estimation of the daily exposure (e.g., due to unknown precursors, missing or poorly quantified exposure pathways and/or poorly quantified isomer ratios of PFOS and

precursors) or ii) an incomplete understanding of the human pharmacokinetic processes (e.g., biotransformation and elimination kinetics of precursors, intermediates and PFOS isomers). The estimated daily intakes for all PFCAs and individual precursors (assuming no biotransformation) are provided in Table S11. Based on these intakes and biotransformation factors for precursors as given

in Section 2.2, the highest Everolimus order total daily exposures among individual PFCAs are estimated for PFOA with 44 pg/kg/d, 270 pg/kg/d, and 3000 pg/kg/d for the low-, intermediate-, and high-exposure scenarios, respectively (Table 1, Fig. 2). Direct PFOA intake is dominant in the low- and intermediate-exposure scenarios (87% and 73% of total exposure, respectively), while in the high-exposure scenario precursor-based (indirect) intake is more important, contributing 64% to the total exposure (Tables S12–S14). Lower daily exposures are estimated for PFHxA and PFDA, ranging from 15 to 520 pg/kg/d for PFHxA and from 24 to 660 pg/kg/d for PFDA, depending on the exposure scenario (Table 1). For both PFHxA and PFDA, direct intake is dominant

in the low- and intermediate-exposure scenarios, contributing between 72% and 96% of the total exposures. In the high-exposure scenario, direct PFHxA intake is still dominant (66%), whereas for PFDA the major daily exposure (66%) originates from precursor-based intakes. The lowest daily exposures are estimated for PFBA and PFDoDA, ranging between 6.3 and 190 pg/kg/d for PFBA and between 23 and 180 pg/kg/d for PFDoDA, depending on the exposure scenario (Table 1). Phosphoglycerate kinase For both PFBA and PFDoDA, daily exposures originate almost entirely from direct intakes regardless of the scenario (i.e., 75%–99%). Based on these results, our hypothesis that the estimated total exposure to PFOA is greater than to other PFCA homologues, and that contributions of direct and indirect exposure vary widely by homologue, is verified. Furthermore, the exposure scenario has a strong influence on the estimated relative importance of direct and indirect intakes, with precursors becoming more important the higher the exposure scenario (Table 1).

Participants completed 180 trials in total Orientation task Six

Participants completed 180 trials in total. Orientation task. Six clock face stimuli consisting of a ring and a radius-long clock hand were simultaneously presented on the computer screen for 100 ms. The orientation of each clock hand was randomly selected from 1° to 360°. Participants remembered as many orientations of the clock hands as possible over a 900 ms retention interval. After the retention interval, a probe ring was presented at one of the stimulus locations. Participants reported the orientation of the clock hand presented at the probe location by clicking on the rim of the ring (see Fig. 1). The probe stayed on the screen until a response was made. Participants

completed 192 trials in total. Motion task. Six motion stimuli were simultaneously presented on the computer screen for 1 s. A CDK inhibitor motion stimulus was a circular field of moving dots whose motion were 100% coherent (i.e. all the dots moved in one direction). The motion direction for each field was randomly selected from 1° to 360°. Participants remembered as many motion directions as possible over a 900 ms retention interval. After the retention interval, a probe ring was presented at one of the stimulus locations. Similarly to the orientation task, participants reported the motion direction of the stimulus presented at the probe location by clicking on the rim of the ring (see Fig. 1). The probe stayed on the screen until a response

was made. Participants completed 180 trials in total. Shape task. Six shape Selleck C59 wnt stimuli were Tideglusib simultaneously presented on the computer screen for 1 s. Shape stimuli were randomly chosen from a stimulus set borrowed from Zhang and Luck (2008). This stimulus set consisted of 180 shapes that varies on a circular continuum. Participants remembered as many shape stimuli as possible over a 900 ms retention interval. After the retention interval, a question mark was presented at one of the stimulus locations along with a shape ring that consisted of

12 shapes that were evenly spaced on the circular shape continuum. Participants reported the shape of the stimulus presented at the probe location by clicking the corresponding location on the shape ring (see Fig. 1). Note that participants’ response was not limited to the locations of 12 shapes, but they were encouraged to click in between the shapes by extrapolation. Participants completed 180 trials in total. Space task. Six letter stimuli (A, B, C, D, E, and F) were simultaneously presented on an imaginary circle on the computer screen for 100 ms. Participants remembered as many locations of the stimuli as possible over a 900 ms retention interval. After the retention interval, a probe letter (A, B, C, D, E, or F) was presented at the center of the screen along with a grey ring at the location of the imaginary circle. Participants reported the location of the probe letter by clicking on the grey ring (see Fig. 1). The probe and the ring stayed on the screen until a response was made.

Once treated, PCR amplification mix was added to the well and amp

Once treated, PCR amplification mix was added to the well and amplification performed. The species cross-reactivity study was performed using a number of commercially available non-human DNAs. Ten nanograms of each domestic animal or microbial species was amplified in duplicate. Species samples included chicken, pig, mouse, bovine, cat, dog, rabbit, deer, horse, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Lactobacillus acidophilis, Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus epidermidis,

Micrococcus luteus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis, Acinetobacter lwoffi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three primate species, chimpanzee (male; Coriell Institute), macaque (male; Coriell GSK-3 activation Institute), and gorilla (gender unknown; privately obtained), were evaluated using 500 pg. The sensitivity Sirolimus supplier study utilized two DNA dilution series provided to all test sites. Test quantities included 500 pg, 200 pg, 100 pg, and 50 pg. An inhibitor study evaluated hematin (Sigma–Aldrich), humic acid (Sigma–Aldrich), tannic acid (Sigma–Aldrich), and EDTA (Sigma–Aldrich) titrations. Each inhibitor study site prepared its own extracted DNA, inhibitor stocks and dilutions. Two mixture series, one male–male and one male–female, were prepared and distributed. Mixture ratios included 0:1, 1:19, 1:9, 1:5, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1, 5:1, 9:1, 19:1, and 1:0 for each series. The

total template quantity was 500 pg per reaction. Concordance was performed with extracted DNA from 652 unrelated individuals from Caucasian, Hispanic, African-American, and Asian-American ethnic groups. Reaction volume studies used 1.2 mm punches of blood on Indicating FTA® cards, in addition to buccal Indicating FTA®

cards described previously. Amplification reactions were performed at 25 μl volumes on a GeneAmp® PCR System 9700 thermal cycler using a 96-well silver or gold block and max ramp rates as described in the PowerPlex® Fusion System Technical Manual [9], unless otherwise noted. The thermal cycling method for extracted DNA samples was: 96 °C for 1 min; 30 cycles of 94 °C for 10 s, 59 °C for 1 min, Tacrolimus (FK506) and 72 °C for 30 s, followed by a 60 °C final extension for 10 min and a 4 °C soak. The cycle number and final extension hold time was modified for solid support materials due to the substantial increase in template amount with these materials. FTA® card punches were amplified for 27 cycles, swab lysates were amplified for 27 or 25 cycles, and treated nonFTA punches were amplified for 25 or 26 cycles. All amplification reactions with solid support substrates utilized a 20 min final extension. Further cycle number optimization was evaluated in a cycle number study. Within that study extracted DNA samples were amplified for 29, 30, and 31 cycles, FTA® card punches for 26, 27, and 28 cycles, and treated nonFTA punches for 25, 26, and 27 cycles.

, 2007 and Geffen, 2009) We thank Matthew Campagna for technical

, 2007 and Geffen, 2009). We thank Matthew Campagna for technical support. This project was supported by Transformational Medical Technologies program contract [HDTRA1-09-CHEM-BIO-BAA] from the Department of Defense Chemical and Biological

Defense program through the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), NIH grants (AI061441 and AI084267-0109) and by the Hepatitis B Foundation through an appropriation from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. DAS and TDB thank the Glycobiology Institute for support. “
“Overall, 2 million people die of AIDS every year. The causative agent of this deadly disease, Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), is one of the most variable viruses. The high evolution rate helps the virus to escape from host immune surveillance, vaccines

and antiretroviral agents. The available antiretroviral compounds can only control viremia, and it is currently impossible to eliminate the virus from the organism, namely Palbociclib mouse JQ1 purchase because HIV-1 provirus persists in the reservoir cells. During intercurrent infections, the provirus is repeatedly reactivated and disseminated into new cells, thus enlarging the pool of reservoir cells. Current therapeutic approaches consist of combinations of several drugs inhibiting various steps in HIV-1 growth cycle, but these drugs reveal serious side effects, and the virus often gains resistance to them (Mehellou and De Clercq, 2010 and Walmsley and Loutfy, 2002). Therefore, more potent and/or less toxic therapeutic approaches effective against HIV are intensively sought. Pathogenesis of HIV/AIDS infection is known to include an increased redox stress that is characterized by the increased production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSH-dependent Tau-protein kinase antioxidant mechanisms, as well as depletion of the main antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase,

thioredoxin or catalase (Pace and Leaf, 1995). The increased redox stress leads not only to the reactivation of the latent HIV-1 provirus, but also to an increased apoptosis and depletion of uninfected CD4+ cells (Pace and Leaf, 1995). The activation of the host cell is accompanied by the activation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB (Lander et al., 1993 and Pantano et al., 2006) and its translocation to the nucleus (Greene, 1991), where it binds to the Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) of the integrated HIV-1 provirus and induces its replication (Nabel and Baltimore, 1987, Pyo et al., 2008 and Williams et al., 2007). The redox state of the cell thus simultaneously affects both activation of NF-κB and reactivation of the latent provirus. Current therapeutic approaches focus primarily on the inhibition of HIV-encoded enzymes reverse transcriptase and protease; fusion inhibitors and inhibitors of co-receptors or integrase are also available (Mehellou and De Clercq, 2010).

fMRI studies, and assessments of learning deficits in Parkinson’s

fMRI studies, and assessments of learning deficits in Parkinson’s patients, support a functional dissociation of

declarative or observational learning from non-declarative, procedural learning selleck chemicals (Ostlund and Balleine, 2007, Poldrack et al., 2001 and Shohamy et al., 2004). Furthermore, while explicit knowledge acquisition may be subject to distraction by other motivations, implicit learning of action-outcome associations may be less vulnerable to distraction (Neumann, 1990). From these considerations it is reasonable to predict superior learning through action than through observation. In this study, our aim was to make a controlled comparison between active and observational learning in the context of human probabilistic value learning. Thus, we implemented a learning task where individuals learnt either by active sampling (with associated reward and punishment) or by passive observation. We RG-7204 assessed learning efficacy as shown by goal-directed choices and individuals’ explicit estimates of value. All aspects of the

tasks, save for the critical factor of self versus other choice, were matched across two modes of value learning. Specifically, differences in attention and information were controlled, as participants could track the same sequences of outcomes in both learning conditions, as was motivation to learn, since participants earned money according to learning performance in both conditions. In this first experiment we recruited 17 healthy participants, screened for neurological or psychological disorders. Participants

failing to reach a criterion of 60% accuracy by the end of each session, when choosing between the 80/20 probability of winning pair, were excluded from further analysis, given a performance level barely exceeding chance (i.e. 50% accuracy) and was considered as a failure to engage sufficiently with the task. This was the Carnitine dehydrogenase case only for one participant, leaving 16 participants for the full analysis (nine female, mean age 23.8 yrs, SD 3.0). Participants provided informed consent, according to UCL Research Ethics Committee approved procedures. Participants completed two sessions on consecutive days. In the first (the ‘actor session’), participants made choices between four stimuli (letters from Agathodaimon font), presented in different pairs on each trial, while concurrently attempting to learn the probability of winning from each. Participants were made aware that each stimulus was associated with a discrete and constant probability of winning (pwin), and outcomes of each stimulus were drawn independently on every trial. Outcomes of chosen and unchosen stimuli were then shown sequentially, with yellow and red boxes indicating winning and losing outcomes, respectively. Critically, these outcomes directly influenced participant’s earnings for the actor session (with £1 awarded for each chosen win from 10 randomly selected trials).

Subjective assessment of DES using a questionnaire was also condu

Subjective assessment of DES using a questionnaire was also conducted at each visit. The TBUT was identified following the procedure reported by Lemp [30]. Everolimus molecular weight A fluorescein strip (Haag-Streit AG, Köniz, Switzerland) was moistened with a drop of saline solution, and placed on the inferior palpebral conjunctiva. The patients were asked to blink several times to mix the fluorescein with the tear film. They were instructed to open their eyes and not blink, and the time between eye opening and the appearance of the first dry spot was measured in seconds. This procedure was repeated three times, and the mean

of the three measurements was recorded finally as TBUT. After the measurement of the TBUT, fluorescein staining on the ocular surface was evaluated using the standardized methods recommended by the National Institutes of Health Symposium on Dry Eye [30]. Briefly, corneal staining was scored 3 minutes after fluorescein instillation by observing the cornea through a cobalt blue light. It was graded using a scale of 0–3 (absent to diffuse) and recorded for the five corneal sections (central, superior, temporal, nasal, and inferior.). The maximum score for each area was 3. The scores of the five areas were summed to obtain a total score for each eye, producing a maximum score of 15. Conjunctival hyperemia

was evaluated by the investigator based on a visual inspection. A standard five-point scoring system was used with the following descriptors based on Histone demethylase photographic

standards: 0 (none) = normal, GSK126 research buy bulbar conjunctival vessels easily observed; +0.5 (trace) = trace flush, reddish-pink color; +1 (mild) = mild flush, reddish color; +2 (moderate) = bright red color; and +3 (severe) = deep, bright, diffuse redness. The Schirmer I test was performed under anesthesia. To obtain anesthetic conditions of all the ocular structures, more than three drops of topical anesthetic (proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution 0.5%) were applied to the conjunctiva and both lid margins. Then, Schirmer strip was placed on the lower lid 2 mm lateral to the lateral canthus. Patients sat in the dark with both eyes closed for 5 minutes. After the strip was removed, a length of the wet area of the strip was measured in millimeters. The quality and quantity of meibomian gland secretions were evaluated using manual expression. The quantity was graded using a three-point scale: 0 = normal; 1 = delay; 2 = partially blocked; and 3 = blocked. The quality was also scored similarly: 0 = clear; 1 = cloudy; 2 = granular; and 3 = opaque solid. To evaluate subjective symptoms of dry eye, the participants were asked to complete the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) prior to taking any clinical measurements.

For our study case, if we consider the average NSI and the networ

For our study case, if we consider the average NSI and the network conformation in 2006 (Fig. 13a), and an event with a 200 year return period versus an event with a 3 year return period, we register a decrease of the NSI of about 20 min. If we compare the average response of the 2006 network to an event having a 3 year return period, respect to the average response of the 1954 network to the same event (Fig. 13b), we have an advance of about 20 min. It appears, therefore, that the loss of storage

capacity might have, on the area response, the same effect of a drastic (200-year return period VS 3-year return period) increasing in the intensity of the rainfall. This result highlights a situation already faced in other areas. Changnon and Demissie (1996), for example, underlined

how drainage PD0332991 changes in the last 50 years explained more of the increasing trend in annual flows (70–72%) than precipitation values. Fig. 13b shows how the changes in storage capacity have a greater effect for events with a shorter return period: the NSI changes mostly for MDV3100 the events with a return period of 3 year. This is in line with older studies from e.g. Hollis (1975) that already underlined how the effect of urbanization declines in relative terms as flood recurrence interval increase, and that small floods may be drastically increased by urbanization. In Italy, the study of Camorani et al. (2005), using a hydrological model, underlined how the hydrologic response of a reclamation area was more pronounced for less severe rainfall events.

Another study by Brath et al. (2006) indicates that the sensitivity of the floods regime to land use change decreases for increasing return Pregnenolone periods, and that the events with the shorter return period are more influenced by land-use changes. The NSI, as well, underlines how the changes in the network storage capacity tend to increase the rapidity of the response in case of events having a lower recurrence interval. From Fig. 13b, it appears also that the loss of storage capacity from 1954 to 2006 has greater effects on events that implied in the past a higher delay in the area response (Sym18): for the most frequent events (return period of 3 years), we have an anticipation of about 1 h and 10 min in 2006, respect 1954. This result suggests a careful land management planning, underlining how conditions that are not necessarily associated with the worst case scenario, can drastically change and seriously constrain the functionality of the reclamation system for rather frequent rainfall events. This work proposed an analysis of changes in the channel network density and storage capacity within a reclamation area in the Veneto floodplain (Italy).