The stress-inducible transcriptional regulator p8 is increased in

The stress-inducible transcriptional regulator p8 is increased in failing

human hearts and is required both for agonist-stimulated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and for cardiac fibroblasts matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP9) induction. In the heart, upregulation of autophagy is an adaptive response to stress and plays a causative role in cardiomyopathies. We have recently shown that p8 ablation in cardiac cells upregulates autophagy and that, in vivo, loss of p8 results BAY 80-6946 mouse in a decrease of cardiac function. Here we investigated the effects of p8 genetic deletion in mediating adverse myocardial remodeling. Unstressed p8-/- mouse hearts manifested complex alterations in the expression of fibrosis markers. In addition, these mice displayed elevated autophagy and apoptosis compared with p8+/+ mice. Transverse aortic constriction (TAC) induced left ventricular p8 expression in p8+/+ mice. Pressure overload caused left ventricular remodeling in both genotypes, however, p8-/- mice showed less cardiac fibrosis induction. Consistent with this, although MMP9 induction was attenuated in the p8-/- mice, induction of MMP2 and MMP3 were strikingly upregulated while TIMP2 was downregulated. Left ventricular autophagy increased after TAC and was significantly higher in the p8-/- mice. Thus p8-deletion results in reduced collagen fibrosis after TAC, but in turn, is associated Dactolisib cell line with

a detrimental higher increase in autophagy. These findings suggest a role for p8 in regulating in vivo key signaling pathways involved in the pathogenesis of heart

“Objective: To study the possible association of founder mutations in the lysosomal storage disorder genes HEXA, SMPD1, and MCOLN1 (causing Tay-Sachs, Niemann-Pick A, and mucolipidosis type IV diseases, respectively) with Parkinson disease (PD).\n\nMethods: Two PD patient cohorts of Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) ancestry, that BI 2536 purchase included a total of 938 patients, were studied: a cohort of 654 patients from Tel Aviv, and a replication cohort of 284 patients from New York. Eight AJ founder mutations in the HEXA, SMPD1, and MCOLN1 genes were analyzed. The frequencies of these mutations were compared to AJ control groups that included large published groups undergoing prenatal screening and 282 individuals matched for age and sex.\n\nResults: Mutation frequencies were similar in the 2 groups of patients with PD. The SMPD1 p.L302P was strongly associated with a highly increased risk for PD (odds ratio 9.4, 95% confidence interval 3.9-22.8, p < 0.0001), as 9/938 patients with PD were carriers of this mutation compared to only 11/10,709 controls.\n\nConclusions: The SMPD1 p.L302P mutation is a novel risk factor for PD. Although it is rare on a population level, the identification of this mutation as a strong risk factor for PD may further elucidate PD pathogenesis and the role of lysosomal pathways in disease development.

For postoperative adjuvant therapy, postoperative chemotherapy (a

For postoperative adjuvant therapy, postoperative chemotherapy (a platinum drug in all cases) was compared to non-chemotherapy. The 4-year PFS was 65% and 14%, and the 4-year OS was 65% and 29%. PFS was significantly better (p = 0.002), and the OS tended to be better (p = 0.073) in the group with postoperative chemotherapy.\n\nConclusion.

Even in patients with early stage SmCC, the prognosis is poor. However, in early stage patients, by adding postoperative chemotherapy, the prognosis may improve. Currently, various treatment protocols are used at each medical center, but in the future, a standardized treatment protocol for SmCC will hopefully be established. (C) INCB018424 cost 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: To identify a cohort of women treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy for whom postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) may be omitted according to the projected risk of local-regional failure (LRF).\n\nMethods and Materials: Seven breast cancer physicians from the University Adavosertib in vitro of California cancer centers created 14 hypothetical clinical case scenarios, identified, reviewed, and abstracted the available literature (MEDLINE and Cochrane databases), and formulated evidence tables with endpoints of LRF, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Using the American College

of Radiology appropriateness criteria methodology, appropriateness ratings for postmastectomy radiation were assigned for each scenario. Finally, an overall summary risk assessment table was developed.\n\nResults: Of 24 sources identified, 23 were retrospective studies from single institutions. Consensus on the appropriateness rating, defined as 80% agreement in a category, was achieved for 86% of the cases. Distinct LRF risk categories emerged. Clinical stage II (T1-2N0-1) patients, aged >40 years, estrogen receptor-positive subtype, with pathologic complete response or 0-3 positive nodes without lympho-vascular invasion or extracapsular extension, were identified as having <= 10% risk of LRF without radiation. Limited data support

stage IIIA patients with pathologic complete response as being low risk.\n\nConclusions: In the absence of randomized trial results, existing data can be used to guide the use of PMRT in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy setting. Using available studies to inform appropriateness ratings for clinical scenarios, we found a high concordance of treatment recommendations for PMRT and were able to identify a cohort of women with a low risk of LRF without radiation. These low-risk patients will form the basis for future planned studies within the University of California Athena Breast Health Network. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc.”
“Forkhead box G1 (Foxg1) is expressed during the embryonic stage and in postnatal brain regions sensitive to hypoxia/ischemia injury, such as the hippocampus and cerebral cortex.

Further readily conversion into 7-azidocoumarins was performed an

Further readily conversion into 7-azidocoumarins was performed and the resulting aryl azides proved higher stability and reactivity than the corresponding non-halogenated parent compound.

These new compounds may thus constitute attractive scaffolds for designing novel photoaffinity selleck chemical reagents for various challenging bio-labeling applications. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background:\n\nModerate-intensity physical activity in women with breast cancer has been reported to improve physical and psychological outcomes. However, initiation and adherence to a routine physical activity program for cancer survivors after therapy may be challenging.\n\nObjective:\n\nThe purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and effect of a community-based exercise intervention on physical and psychological symptoms and quality of life in breast cancer survivors.\n\nMethods:\n\nA 1-group pretest-posttest design was used to evaluate a thrice weekly, 4- to 6-month supervised exercise intervention on symptoms and selleckchem quality of life. Data were collected at baseline and end of the intervention, using the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial Checklist, the Symptom Distress Scale, the Centers for

Epidemiology Scale for Depression, and the Medical Outcomes Short Form.\n\nResults:\n\nThere were 26 participants, with a mean (SD) age of 51.3 (6.2) years; most were married, well educated, and employed. The intervention was delivered at 3 community fitness Elafibranor centers, and adherence ranged from 75% to 98%. Vasomotor, musculoskeletal, and cognitive symptoms were common, but only muscle stiffness, fatigue, and depression significantly changed over time (P = .04, .05, and .01,

respectively). Quality of life improved significantly in the areas of physical, emotional, and social function; pain; vitality; and mental health.\n\nConclusions:\n\nProviding an exercise intervention in the community where women live and work is feasible and improves physical, psychological, and functional well-being.\n\nImplications for Practice:\n\nExercise is a key component of cancer rehabilitation and needs to be integrated into our standard care.”
“Conus regius is a venomous mollusc in the Conidae family, which includes species responsible for severe or even fatal accidents affecting human beings. This is the first report on a clinical case involving this species. It consisted a puncture in the right hand of a diver who presented paresthesia and movement difficulty in the whole limb. The manifestations disappeared after around twelve hours, without sequelae.”
“Quantitative analysis of vascular blood flow, acquired by phase-contrast MRI, requires accurate segmentation of the vessel lumen. In clinical practice, 2D-cine velocity-encoded slices are inspected, and the lumen is segmented manually.

Yet there was no change in male erectile function, ejaculatory fu

Yet there was no change in male erectile function, ejaculatory function, or nicotine dependence levels compared

to the Selleck LY3023414 preoperative. These may suggest that although NAc is a key part of the neural circuitry, the NAc surgical lesions left the fundamental aspects of natural and drug-induced reinforcement and motivation almost intact.”
“Developmental disturbances involving the oral cavity affect the growth and development of a child. Tooth agenesis may be associated with a number of documented syndromes or may present as an isolated entity. The presence or absence of teeth is decided by the influence of various genes and their signaling pathways. These syndromes appear due to chromosomal defects or due to mutations in the genes responsible for organogenesis. Identification of these mutations helps understand the underlying defect and plays an important role in their treatment strategies. This is a comprehensive review of literature on syndromic and non-syndromic selleck products forms of dental agenesis and an attempt in enlisting various syndromes associated with dental agenesis.”
“A graphene based biosensor system is presented for performing highly sensitive pathogenic virus detection. A free-standing conductive graphene film was prepared as a novel electrochemical sensor through two steps: synthesis of a graphene oxide (GO) film from GO colloidal suspensions

by using a speed vacuum concentrator and thermal annealing process at 900 degrees C with H(2)/Ar flow to generate a reduced GO film. The resultant graphene film shows an excellent electron transfer property on the surface in the [Fe(CN)(6)](3-)/(4-) redox system and is used as a working electrode in the electrochemical biosensor. The surface of graphene is modified C59 with pyrene derivatives, and then covalently linked with virus-specific antibodies. The target cell, rotavirus,

is captured on the graphene film through antibody-antigen interaction, and the entire process was monitored by cyclic voltammetric responses. A 10(5) pfu/mL of input cells is detected with ca. 30.7% sensitivity, and ca. 1.3% sensitivity is measured with 10(3) pfu/mL of input cells, demonstrating that graphene film based electrode can be applied for electrochemical biosensor.”
“Larvae of a vast majority of water mite species are parasites of aquatic insects. Owing to this, they migrate to new localities, and are able to survive unfavourable environmental conditions. This also concerns species from subgenus Arrenurus s. str., parasites of dragonflies. The detailed analysis of this phenomenon, however, has only been possible in the last several years, since the key to the identification of larvae from genus Arrenurus Dug. was published. In 2010, the parasitism of Arrenurus s. str. larvae on dragonflies in the Lake Swidwie reserve (NW Poland) was analysed. Larvae of 9 species of water mites were recorded on 107 imagines of dragonflies from 8 species.

Subregions of both amygdala and hypothalamus were also sexually d

Subregions of both amygdala and hypothalamus were also sexually dimorphic in the direction of Male > Female, but were not predicted by FT. However, FT positively predicted gray matter volume of a non-sexually dimorphic subregion of the amygdala. These results bridge a long-standing gap between human and nonhuman species by showing that FT acts as an organizing mechanism for the development of regional sexual dimorphism in the human brain.”
“Background Neovascularization can cause vision loss in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and may be affected Rabusertib by many

factors. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is a potent stimulator of angiogenesis. The study was aimed to investigate the expression of SDF-1 and its correlation with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the eyes with diabetic retinopathy.\n\nMethods The levels of SDF-1 and VEGF were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the vitreous of 41 eyes of 41 patients with PDR and 12 eyes of 12 patients with idiopathic macular hole (IMH). Vitreous fluid samples

and fibrovascular preretinal membranes were obtained at vitrectomy. SDF-1 MEK inhibitor and VEGF were localized using immunohistochemistry.\n\nResults The vitreous concentration of VEGF was significantly higher in eyes with PDR ((2143.7 +/- 1685.21) pg/ml) than in eyes with IMH ((142.42 +/- 72.83) pg/ml, P<0.001). The vitreous level of SDF-1 was also significantly higher in eyes with PDR ((306.37 +/- 134.25) pg/ml) than in eyes with IMH LDN-193189 mouse ((86.91 +/- 55.05) pg/ml, P<0.001). The concentrations of both VEGF and

SDF-1 were higher in eyes with active PDR than in eyes with inactive PDR. Panretinal photocoagulation (PAP) could decrease the SDF-1 levels in the vitreous of PDR patients. The vitreous concentration of SDF-1 correlated with that of VEGF in eyes with PDR (r=0.61, P<0.001). The costaining of SDF-1 and VEGF was confined to the vascular components in preretinal membranes.\n\nConclusions SDF-1 protein is highly expressed in both the vitreous and preretinal membranes of PDR patients; SDF-1 may be correlated with VEGF in angiogenesis in PDR. Chin Med J 2010;123(8):984-988″
“Background High-resolution manometry (HRM) with spatiotemporal representation of pressure data is a recent advance in esophageal measurement. At present, normal values are available for 5 mL water swallows in the supine position. This study provides reference values for liquid and solid bolus swallows in the upright seated and supine positions. Methods A total of 23 asymptomatic volunteers (11M : 12F, age 20-56) underwent HRM (Manoscan 360; Sierra Scientific Instruments) with 5 mL water and 1 cm(3) bread swallows in the upright and supine positions.

In vivo drug targeting studies showed an increase in AUC, therape

In vivo drug targeting studies showed an increase in AUC, therapeutic availability of DFS in air pouch fluid (APF) and APF/serum DFS concentration ratios from antioxidant

loaded liposomes compared to conventional liposomes and drug solution. The promising results suggest the role of antioxidant as a possible ligand in drug targeting to a site where at abundant ROS exist. (C) see more 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The aim of this work was to select and characterize model particles, which correspond to real wear products from artificial hip joints, and to investigate the dispersing behavior of these powders. Commercially available nano and microparticles of corundum, graphite, and chromium oxide were selected or alternatively self-produced by milling. These powders were characterized regarding density, specific surface area, crystalline phases, particle size distributions and shape. Volume-based particle size distributions Q(3)(d) were measured after dispersing in water, water with dispersant, Ringers Solution, and Cell Culture solution (Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM)) by laser diffraction and

ultrasonic spectroscopy. Nanopowders formed agglomerates in the micrometer range in cell Culture solutions. LY3023414 in vitro The micropowders showed only a marginal agglomeration. The median diameters of the dispersed nanopowders were even bigger than those of micropowders. Calculations of the number-based size distribution Q(0)(d) showed that in spite of the agglomeration the predominant number of the nano and microparticles is in the sub micrometer range, with only one exception, the micrographite powder. (C) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, selleck kinase inhibitor Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 89A: 379-389, 2009″
“Signaling and internalization of Ste2p, a model G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are reported to be regulated by phosphorylation status of serine (S) and threonine (T) residues located in the cytoplasmic C-terminus. Although the functional roles of S/T residues located in certain C-terminus regions are relatively well characterized,

systemic analyses have not been conducted for all the S/T residues that are spread throughout the C-terminus. A point mutation to alanine was introduced into the S/T residues located within three intracellular loops and the C-terminus individually or in combination. A series of functional assays such as internalization, FUS1-lacZ induction, and growth arrest were conducted in comparison between WT- and mutant Ste2p. The Ste2p in which all SIT residues in the C-terminus were mutated to alanine was more sensitive to alpha-factor, suggesting that phosphorylation in the C-terminus exerts negative regulatory activities on the Ste2p signaling. C-terminal SIT residues proximal to the seventh transmembrane domain were important for ligand-induced G protein coupling but not for receptor internalization. Sites on the central region of the C-terminus regulated both constitutive and ligand-induced internalization.

Furthermore, this review gives an in-depth overview of the differ

Furthermore, this review gives an in-depth overview of the different techniques and vehicles for intracellular mRNA delivery exploited by us and other groups, comprising electroporation, gene gun injection, lipo- and polyplexes. Finally, it covers recent literature describing specific applications for mRNA based gene delivery, showing that until now most attention has been paid to vaccination

strategies. click here This review offers a comprehensive overview of current knowledge of the major theoretical as well as practical aspects of mRNA-mediated transfection, showing both its possibilities and its pitfalls and should therefore be useful for a diverse scientific audience. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Recently, microsatellite polymorphisms have been reported to LY3023414 in vitro be associated with four genes, GABRB3, MAOB, PAH, and SLC6A4, and their relationships have been tested to five symptom factors: hallucinations, delusions, negative symptoms, mania, and depression.

These factors were frequently present in schizophrenia spectrum disorders in the Irish Study of High Density Schizophrenia Families (ISHDSF) with a proband with the diagnosis of schizophrenia (Bergen et al., 2009). Of these, GABRB3 and PAH were reported to be significantly associated with hallucinations and delusions in a 90-family subset of the ISHDSF, respectively. In this study, we tested the association of genetic markers from these four gene regions with the approximate five clinical symptoms, based upon 256 schizophrenia patients, with genotypic data obtained by higher resolution single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 17DMAG order genotyping. We found one GABRB3 SNP (rs1426891, 70.8 kb downstream of this gene) and haplotype constructed by three SNPs (rs1426891, rs2912602, and rs2912600) were significantly associated with hallucinations in Caucasians after Bonferroni correction

for multiple testing (Bonferroni corrected P.. 0.032 and 0.016, respectively). Additionally, we found one haplotype constructed by two SNPs, rs5905587-rs37615860, in MAOB/NDP gene region was significantly associated with delusions in all samples tested (Bonferroni corrected P: 0.048). These results provide additional evidence that GABRB3 and MAOB/NDP gene regions might constitute risk factors for hallucinations and delusions in schizophrenia. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Hydrazoic acid (HN3)-potentially explosive, highly toxic, and very hygroscopic-is the simplest covalent azide and contains 97.7 wt % nitrogen. Although its molecular structure was established decades ago, its crystal structure has now been solved by X-ray diffraction for the first time. Molecules of HN3 are connected to each other by hydrogen bonds in nearly planar layers parallel to (001) with stacking sequence A, B, … The layer distance, at 2.

There was no significant

correlation between the frequenc

There was no significant

correlation between the frequency of crabs’ occurrence and the temporal variability of water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH in different months This study provides the first report of the distribution of pea crabs A tivelae in A. umbonella, a new clam host record in Iran”
“In areas of intensive agriculture continuous applications of mineral and organic fertilizers can lead to an accumulation of phosphorus (P) in the soils and progressive saturation of their sorption capacities, increasing the risk of P losses to aquatic ecosystems. The long-term evolution (44 years) of soil P forms has been studied in a factorial experiment combining three soils Bcl2 inhibitor (sandy, clay and a peaty) with three types of fertilization (no fertilizer, farmyard manure and mineral fertilizer). The P distribution in the calcium P (P(Ca)), iron P (P(Fe)), iron + aluminium P(P(Fe+Al)) forms, and the effect of treatments on P availability (oxalate extractable-P, Mehlich-3-P, Olsen-P, water extractable-P) were determined. Two sorption P indices and the degree of soil saturation were also calculated.\n\nSoil P forms were affected by both quantity and quality of P inputs. Farmyard manure GDC-0994 caused a more consistent increase in soil P content, affecting the water soluble and labile P forms (Mehlich-3-P and Olsen-P) in particular. Readily assimilable and potentially mobile P forms

were positively correlated with the amount of high molecular weight humic fractions, thus stressing the importance of the type of incorporated materials and their evolution in determining soil P behaviour. Soils treated with farmyard manure, and to a lesser extent with mineral fertilizer, exceeded the threshold values of 20 mg kg(-1) for Olsen-P and 150 mg kg(-1) for Mehlich-3-P, thus evidencing a potential risk of P loss to water bodies. While in absolute terms the more consistent accumulations were observed in clay and Akt inhibitor peaty soils, the P content of sandy soils is of particular concern, given their lower P sorption capacity and higher degree of saturation. Among the soil P tests, Mehlich-3-P proved to be the best indicator to assess Italian soil conditions for both agronomic

and environmental purposes. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is characterized by infection and inflammation of the upper genital tract in women and can cause significant reproductive health sequelae for women. Although a definitive diagnosis of PID is made by laparoscopic visualization of inflamed, purulent fallopian tubes, PID is generally a clinical diagnosis and thus represents a diagnostic challenge. Therefore, diagnosis and treatment algorithms advise a high index of suspicion for PID in any woman of reproductive age with pelvic or abdominal pain. Antibiotic therapy should be started early, and given for an adequate period of time to reduce the risk of complications. Coverage for anaerobic organisms should be considered in most cases.

Aim of the present study is to assess the possible predictive val

Aim of the present study is to assess the possible predictive value of DNA ploidy for malignant progression of oral NU7026 cell line leukoplakia.\n\nA cohort of 62 leukoplakia patients was studied and their biopsy was examined with standard histopathology and DNA image cytometry. Cox regression analysis

was performed to establish the relationship between progression-free survival and the DNA ploidy status.\n\nDuring the follow-up time (median of 69 months) 13 patients developed an oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). DNA aneuploidy was observed in 27 (44%) patients and was significantly associated with a shorter progression-free survival [Hazard ratio of 3.7, 95% confidence intervals (CI) of 1.1 and 13.0 and a p-value of 0.04]. Sensitivity and specificity scores were 54% and 60%, respectively. Aneuploidy was not correlated with dysplasia grading (chi-square analysis).\n\nDNA

aneuploidy in oral leukoplakia is associated with an increased risk of progression to OSCC. However, for the individual leukoplakia patient, DNA ploidy status as single biomarker has limited value to predict progression to cancer. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“The structure and photoluminescence selleck chemicals (PL) properties of CeO2 nanocrystals synthesized by the microwave-assisted hydrothermal (MAH) method with different praseodymium (Pr3+) ions contents were performed. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopies and PL measurements at room temperature

were employed. XRD patterns indicated that the nanocrystals are free of secondary phases and crystallize in the cubic structure while FT-Raman revealed a typical scattering mode of fluorite type. The UV-vis spectra suggested the presence of intermediate energy levels in the band gap of these nanocrystals. The most intense PL emission was obtained for CeO2 nanocrystals doped with 1.6% of Pr3+ ions and smaller particle size. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. All rights reserved.”
“Male goats of mating age serologically negative for Toxoplasma gondii were divided into three groups: GI – controls (placebo) (n = 2); GII – infected with 1 x 10(6) tachyzoites (RH strains) (n = 2); and Gill infected with 2 x 10(5) Selleck AZD5363 oocysts (P strains) (n = 2). Clinical, hematology, parasite and serology tests and studies of parasites in the semen through bioassay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and in reproductive organs (bioassay) were performed to assess toxoplasrna infection. Serological titers peaked at 4096 in two animal groups infected with the protozoan. The bioassays allowed an early detection of protozoa in semen samples of tachyzoite-inoculated animals. T gondii DNA was identified through PCR in the semen in five (Days 5, 7, 28, 49, and 70) and two (both at day 56) different days post-inoculation in GII and GIII animals, respectively.

The significance of our result referring to the sleep deprivation

The significance of our result referring to the sleep deprivation was responsible for deep morphological alterations in ventral prostate tissue, like to castration microscopic modifications. This result is due to the marked alterations in hormonal status caused by PSD and SR.”
“Objectives To explore how parents navigate urgent and emergency care (U&EC) services when their child <5 years

old has a feverish illness, their views of that experience and whether services are meeting their needs and triaging in line with national guidance.\n\nDesign Parents of a febrile child <5 years old contacting any U&EC service in three localities during a 6-month period were invited to participate in a telephone questionnaire supplemented by case note review. A subset participated in an in-depth interview.\n\nResults HDAC inhibitors cancer Of 556 parents expressing an interest, 220 enrolled, making 570 contacts (median 3, range 1-13) with services during the child’s illness which lasted 3 days on average. Parents’ first preference for advice in hours was to see a general practitioner (GP) (67%; 93/138) and when unavailable, National Health Service Direct (46%; 38/82). 155 made more than one contact and 63% of the repeat contacts were initiated by a service provider. A range of factors influenced parents’

use of services. Parents this website who reported receiving ‘safety netting’ advice (81%) were less likely to re-present to U&EC services than those who did not recall receiving such advice (35% vs 52%, p=0.01). Parents identified a need for accurate, consistent, written advice regarding fever and antipyretics.\n\nConclusion Parents know the U&EC service options available, and their first choice is the GP. Multiple contacts are being made for relatively well children, often due to repeated referrals within the system. Safety netting advice reduces re-attendances but parents want explicit S3I-201 order and consistent advice for appropriate home management.”
“Background: The Wyoming Valley Wellness Trails Partnership received an Active Living by Design grant late in 2003 for a project centered on a growing trail network linking urban, suburban, and rural Communities in northeast

Pennsylvania, a former coal region, in order to increase physical activity among residents.\n\nIntervention: The partnership conducted research, collected information, created promotional documents, worked with partners on events and programs, and participated in trail planning. Local trail organizations continued planning and construction toward developing a trail network. Other partners spearheaded policy change in schools and worksites and worked toward downtown revitalization. The partnership assisted these efforts by providing a forum in which organizations could meet.\n\nResults: The partnership became a central resource for information about local parks, trails, and outdoor recreational activities. The partnership increased awareness and use of recreational facilities.