This observation is pointing to the potential complementary role

This observation is pointing to the potential complementary role of dietary supplements in the primary prevention of atherosclerosis.”

Hypobaric hypoxia, physical and psychosocial stress may influence key cardiovascular parameters including blood pressure (BP) and pulse pressure (PP). We investigated the effects of mild hypobaric hypoxia exposure on BP and PP reactivity to mental and physical stress and to passive elevation by cable car. Methods: 36 healthy volunteers participated in a defined test procedure consisting of a period of rest 1, mental stress check details task (KLT-R), period of rest 2, combined mental (KLT-R) and physical task (bicycle ergometry) and a last period of rest both at Graz, Austria (353 m asl) and at the top station Dachstein (2700 m asl). Beat-to-beat heart rate and BP were analysed both during the test procedures at Graz and at Dachstein and during passive 1000 m elevation by cable car (from 1702 m to 2700 m). Results: A significant interaction buy GDC-0994 of kind of stress (mental vs. combined mental and physical) and study location (Graz vs. Dachstein)

was found in the systolic BP (p = .007) and PP (p = .002) changes indicating that during the combined mental and physical stress task sBP was significantly higher under hypoxic conditions whereas sBP and PP were similar during mental stress both under normobaric normoxia (Graz) and under hypobaric hypoxia (Dachstein). During the passive ascent in cable car less trivialization (psychological coping strategy) was associated with an increase in PP (p = .004). Conclusion: Our data show that combined mental and physical stress causes a significant higher raise in sBP and PP under hypoxic conditions whereas isolated mental stress did not affect sBP and PP under hypoxic conditions. PP-reaction to ascent in healthy subjects is not uniform. BP reactions to ascent that represents an accumulation of physical (mild hypobaric hypoxia) and psychological stressors depend on predetermined psychological traits (stress coping strategies). Thus divergent cardiovascular reactions can be explained by applying the multidimensional aspects of the biopsychosocial

“The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a protein-free diet in the induction of food allergy and oral tolerance P505-15 solubility dmso in BALB/ c mice. The experimental model used was mice that were fed, since weaning up to adulthood, a balanced diet in which all dietary proteins were replaced by amino acid diet (Aa). The absence of dietary proteins did not prevent the development of food allergy to ovalbumin (OVA) in these mice. However, Aa-fed mice produced lower levels of IgE, secretory IgA and cytokines. In addition, when compared with mice from control group, Aa-fed mice had a milder aversive reaction to the allergen measured by consumption of OVA-containing solution and weight loss during food allergy development.

6-1000 mcg QD and 15 6-250 mcg twice daily (BID) The primary end

6-1000 mcg QD and 15.6-250 mcg twice daily (BID). The primary endpoint was trough forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at the end of each study’s treatment period (Day 8/Day 15). A population model-based analysis using total daily UMEC dose was used for

the primary analysis comparing QD and BID dosing. A physiological effect (E-max) model was optimal in defining the relationship between UMEC dose and the primary endpoint, demonstrating a clear monotonic dose response over QD and selleck compound BID dosing regimens. UMEC doses 62.5 mcg QD were differentiated from lower doses and BID dosing did not provide benefit over QD dosing. The potency (ED50) estimate was 33 mcg with QD dosing. These data indicate that UMEC 62.5 mcg

and 125 mcg QD provide lung function benefits that warrant further investigation for the treatment of COPD.”
“Decellularized skeletal muscle is a promising model that can be used to study cell-matrix interactions and changes that occur in muscle extracellular matrix (ECM) in myopathies and muscle wasting diseases. The goal of this study is to develop a novel method to decellularize skeletal muscle that maintains the native biochemical composition and structure of the ECM. This method consists of sequential incubation of mouse tibialis anterior muscles in latrunculin B, high ON-01910 cost ionic strength salt solution, and DNase I and avoids use of proteases or detergents that degrade the ECM. Characterization of the decellularized muscles using hematoxylin and eosin staining along with DNA quantification suggested complete removal of DNA, whereas biochemical analyses indicated no loss of collagens and only a slight reduction in glycosaminoglycans. Western blot analysis of decellularized tissues showed removal of the vast majority of the contractile proteins actin and myosin, and morphological analysis using scanning GSK2118436 in vivo electron microscopy suggested removal of myofibers from decellularized muscle tissues. Passive mechanical testing of decellularized muscle bundles revealed the typical nonlinear behavior,

similar to that of intact muscle. Together, these results suggest that the protocol developed successfully decellularizes skeletal muscle without altering its composition and mechanical function.”
“Background: Protein translocation across the membrane of the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is the first step in the biogenesis of secretory and membrane proteins. Proteins enter the ER by the Sec61 translocon, a proteinaceous channel composed of three subunits, alpha, beta and gamma. While it is known that Sec61 alpha forms the actual channel, the function of the other two subunits remains to be characterized.\n\nResults: In the present study we have investigated the function of Sec61 beta in Drosophila melanogaster.

“The study of synthetic peptides corresponding to discrete

“The study of synthetic peptides corresponding to discrete regions of proteins has facilitated the understanding of protein structure-activity relationships. Short peptides can also be used as powerful therapeutic agents. However, in many instances, small peptides are prone to rapid degradation or aggregation and may lack the conformation required to mimic

the functional motifs of MDV3100 solubility dmso the protein. For peptides to function as pharmacologically active agents, efficient production or expression, high solubility, and retention of biological activity through purification and storage steps are required. We report here the design, expression, and functional analysis of eight engineered GST proteins (denoted GSHKTs) in which peptides ranging in size from 8 to 16 amino acids and derived from human high molecular weight kininogen (HK) domain 5 were inserted into GST (between Gly-49 and Leu-50).

Peptides derived from HK are known to inhibit cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and tumor metastasis, and the biological activity of the HK peptides was dramatically (>50-fold) enhanced following insertion into GST. GSHKTs are soluble and easily purified from Escherichia coli by affinity chromatography. Functionally, these hybrid proteins cause inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. Crystallographic analysis of GSHKT10 ICG-001 MS-275 ic50 and GSHKT13 (harboring 10- and 13-residue HK peptides, respectively) showed that the overall GST structure was not perturbed. These results suggest that the therapeutic efficacy of short peptides can be enhanced by insertion into larger proteins that are easily expressed and purified and that GST may potentially be used as such a carrier.”
“Testicular autotransplantation is an advanced technique for the correction of high intra-abdominal testicles with inadequate vascular length for repositioning in the scrotum. In the past,

surgeons have often avoided this approach due to the extended operative time and the requirement for microsurgical equipment and training. Surprisingly, this procedure remains rare despite the fact that autotransplantation is sometimes the most viable option to relocate the testicle. Further, current advances in laparoscopic surgery allow for testicular harvesting with minimal morbidity and maximal vascular pedicle length. Here, the evolution and an approach combining these two techniques implemented successfully in five patients are presented.”
“Quantifying a species thermal tolerance is critical to assessing biological impacts of anticipated increases in temperature (e.g., climate change). Although many studies have documented the critical thermal maximum (CTmax) of fish, there is a paucity of research on thermal biology of sturgeon.

Patient: She presented polyostotic fibrous dysplasia of the l

\n\nPatient: She presented polyostotic fibrous dysplasia of the left upper and lower limbs and a cafeau-lait skin spot in the posterior area of the neck. She had a history of precocious puberty, diagnosed

at the age of 6 years and treated this website with cyproterone acetate until the age of 10 years; then she developed central puberty with severe oligomenorrhea. At the age of 23 years, she was hospitalized for a virilization syndrome including hirsutism, acne, deepening of the voice, amenorrhea, and clitoromegaly. Serum levels of T were dramatically increased (1293 ng/dl; normal range, 10-80). The abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a solid mass located on the left ovary.\n\nIntervention: An ovariectomy was performed, and histological examination revealed a sclerosing-stromal tumor with pseudolobular pattern.\n\nResults: Immunohistochemical studies revealed that the tumor cells expressed all steroidogenic enzymes involved

in androgen synthesis. Molecular analysis revealed that ovarian tumor cells harbored the Arg 201 activating mutation in the GNAS1 gene. After surgery, T levels returned to normal, the patient retrieved a normal gonadal function, and she was able to become pregnant.\n\nConclusion: This observation extends GDC-0973 ic50 the clinical spectrum of ovarian pathology of women with MAS. However, the mechanisms causing this ovarian tumor remain unclear, even if the gsp oncogene has been implicated in the pathogenesis of some gonadal tumors. (J Clin Endocrinol Metab 98: E314-E320, 2013)”
“Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis and primarily affects children < 5 years of age. Intensive care unit (ICU) admission is unusual, but there can be associated severe complications in KD patients. This study was conducted to identify risk factors for ICU

admission. Retrospectively, we reviewed charts of all children who had a discharge diagnosis of KD from 2001 through 2009. Clinical presentation, laboratory data, and outcome were collected for analysis of the association with ICU admission in KD patients. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) was used to identify factor interactions. There were 334 KD patients, including 24 patients in ICU admission, included in the analysis. Ion Channel Ligand Library clinical trial Coronary artery lesions (CALs) and failure of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment were more frequently found in the ICU group (P < 0.0001). Total counts of white blood cells, hemoglobin levels, C-reactive protein, and albumin levels showed significant association with ICU admission (P < 0.05). Moderate tricuspid regurgitation (TR) was found only in the ICU admission group. MDR analyses of factor interactions identified that TR interacted with CAL with a prediction accuracy of 77.78 %. (P = 0.001). Patients with KD who are IVIG resistant and/or who are found to have CALs are at increased risk for ICU admission. Most importantly, moderate TR was significantly found in KD patients only in the ICU group.

Analytical results show that the UV light-promoting efficiency, r

Analytical results show that the UV light-promoting efficiency, r(PE-F)/r(E-F), was 2.02, 2.55 and 2.67 with initial hydrogen peroxide concentrations of 15, 20 and 25 mM, respectively. We conclude that UV irradiation promoted 2,6-DMA degradation significantly. The same tendency was observed for biochemical oxygen demand/total organic carbon (BOD(5)/TOC) ratios for each process, Selleckchem SBE-β-CD meaning that 2,6-DMA can be successfully detoxified using the electro-Fenton and photoelectro-Fenton

processes. Some organic intermediates aminobenzene, nitrobenzene, 2,6-dimethylphenol, phenol and oxalic acid-were detected in different oxidation processes.”
“Objective. To evaluate cholecystectomy rates in a Norwegian county during the transition time from open to laparoscopic surgery, with focus on the incident rate of laparoscopic operations, sex differences, age at operation, and indications for cholecystectomy. Material and methods. All 2615 patients living in North Trondelag County and operated with cholecystectomy for benign biliary disease between Caspase-3 Inhibitor 1990 and 2011 were identified. Poisson regression was used to analyze factors associated with cholecystectomy incidence rate ratios (IRRs). Results. The proportion of completed laparoscopic cholecystectomies was 8% in

1992, 50% in 1994, 94% in 2003 and 99% in 2011. The incidence of cholecystectomy increased from 6.2 per 10 000 person-years in 1990-1992, 8.0 in 1993-1997, to 10.0 in 1998-2003 and remained at this level with a rate of 10.7 during 2004-2011. Adjusting for age at each year of surgery the IRR for females compared with males was 2.3(2.1-2.5) p smaller than 0.001. The median age at operation was 60.2 years (13-90) in males, 50.1 years (12-93) in females p smaller than 0.001. The median age diminished by 5 years in both males and females. A conversion from laparoscopic to open surgery decreased significantly by calendar year of surgery, increased with age of the patient, and was less often in

surgery for gallstone colic than for other Selleck AS1842856 indications. Conclusions. During the introduction of laparoscopic surgery, the rates of cholecystectomy increased and remained stable at a higher level during the later years of the study. The rate of completed laparoscopic operations increased from 8% in 1992 to 99% in 2011.”
“Exposure of DNA to UV radiation causes covalent linkages between adjacent pyrimidines. The most common lesion found in DNA from these UV-induced linkages is the cis-syn cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer. Human DNA polymerase kappa (Pol kappa), a member of the Y-family of DNA polymerases, is unable to insert nucleotides opposite the 3′T of a cis-syn T-T dimer, but it can efficiently extend from a nucleotide inserted opposite the 3′T of the dimer by another DNA polymerase.

Both anti-CD64 and methotrexate association were confirmed by Fou

Both anti-CD64 and methotrexate association were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and quantified yielding values as high as 36% and 79%, respectively. In vitro toxicity studies confirmed the methotrexate-loaded nanosystem to be more effective than the free drug. Conclusion: Multifunctional anti-CD64-conjugated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles for the combined delivery of methotrexate and SPIONs were successfully prepared and characterized. This nanosystem has the potential to provide a new theranostic approach for the management of RA.”
“The BCR/ABL oncogene is responsible for the phenotype of Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) leukemia. BCR/ABL exhibits

an aberrant ABL-tyrosine kinase activity. The treatment of advanced Ph+ leukemia with selective ABL-kinase inhibitors such as Imatinib, Nilotinib buy LEE011 and Dasatinib is initially effective but rapidly followed by resistance mainly because of specific mutations in BCR/ABL. Tetramerization of ABL through the N-terminal coiled-coil region (CC) of BCR is essential for the ABL-kinase activation. Targeting the CC-domain forces BCR/ABL into a monomeric conformation reduces its kinase activity and increases the sensitivity for Imatinib. We show that (i) targeting the tetramerization by a peptide representing the Helix-2 of the CC efficiently reduced the autophosphorylation of

both unmutated and mutated BCR/ABL; (ii) Helix-2 inhibited the transformation potential of BCR/ABL independently of the presence of mutations; and (iii) Helix-2 efficiently cooperated with Imatinib as revealed by their effects on the

transformation potential and the factor-independence related to BCR/ABL with the exception of mutant T315I. These findings support earlier observations that BCR/ABL harboring the T315I mutation have a transformation potential that is at least partially independent of its kinase activity. These data provide evidence that the inhibition of tetramerization inhibits BCR/ABL-mediated transformation and can contribute KU-57788 solubility dmso to overcome Imatinib-resistance. (C) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Multi-system pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA) is a rare syndrome of aldosterone unresponsiveness characterized by symptoms of severe salt-losing caused by mutations in one of the genes that encode alpha, beta or gamma subunit of epithelial sodium channels (ENaC). We examined long-term changes in the renin-aldosterone response in patients with different mutations. Four PHA patients were followed-up for 7-22 years. Patient A with a heterozygous Gly327Cys missense mutation in alpha ENaC is a mild case and patients B, C and D are severe cases. Two additional patients with renal PHA served as controls. In patient A, serum aldosterone and plasma renin activity (PRA) decreased with age, PRA reaching near normal values at age 11. In contrast, patients B-D showed a positive correlation between age and aldosterone (r > 0.86 for all).

“Background: Sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) is the commones

“Background: Sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) is the commonest neonatal neoplasm. Its long-term effects are important in prenatal counseling and the delivery of an appropriate postoperative plan.\n\nAim: To determine the long-term functional outcome after SCT excision in a UK regional center.\n\nStudy Design: Follow-up data for all patients with a SCT excised at the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford was collected retrospectively from notes and prospectively in clinic visits.\n\nOutcome Measures: Clinical evidence of bowel or bladder impairment. Go 6983 TGF-beta/Smad inhibitor mortality.\n\nResults: Over a 14-year

period. 18 patients had a histologic diagnosis of SCT. Nine patients (50%,) were born. 7 (39%) were terminated. and 2 (11%) were stillbirths. Of the 9 patients who had SCT resection. 4 (44%) were antenatally diagnosed. There were no perioperative deaths and alpha-fetoprotein levels normalized by 6 to 12 months after tumor resection. Median follow-up of patients, was 30 months mTOR cancer (range: 6 to 132 mo) with 1 patient lost to follow-up at 6 months. although he was asymptomatic at file time. Three patients developed urologic complications (2 within 1 year of tumor resection). including 2 patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction and 1 patient with detrusor sphincter dyssynergia.\n\nConclusions:

Approximately one-third of patients will develop major urologic complications after resection of SCT. Routine ultrasonography in the first postoperative year Givinostat after tumor resection may help to identify patients with neuropathic bladder at the early stage and predict late complications. Parents need to be aware of this potential long-term complication during prenatal counseling and the need for regular long-term follow-Lip with the pediatric surgical team.”
“Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) is a marker for cardiovascular risk and an independent predictor of long-term outcome in adults. Epidemiological data from pediatric cohorts are rare. We studied the association of GGT to body mass index as a standard deviation score, sex, and age in 68,415 children (age 11.7 +/- 4.4 years; 48% boys; body mass index

27.2 +/- 7.4 kg/m(2); GGT measured in n = 23,955). GGT > 50 U/L is strongly associated with extreme obesity (odds ratio 27.13, 95% confidence interval 15.07-48.85) and male sex (odds ratio 2.60, 95% confidence interval 2.03-3.31). GGT seems to be of clinical relevance and may be marketable as a surrogate in risk profiling for children with obesity.”
“Background and aim of the study: Rheumatic heart disease is the most common cause of multivalvular disease in developing countries. Unless aggressive and timely intervention in the form of valve replacement is pursued, the condition progresses rapidly to disability and death. Combined mitral-aortic valve replacement represents a major technical challenge, and carries high early and late mortality rates.

Behavioral testing was performed to investigate the mechanical wi

Behavioral testing was performed to investigate the mechanical withdrawal threshold. The numbers of activated click here satellite

glial cells and endoneurial macrophages were counted, and the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor ( GDNF) were examined by double-labeled immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting.\n\nResults. The mechanical withdrawal threshold was significantly decreased for 28 days and then gradually recovered (P < 0.05). Long-term activation of endoneurial macrophages and satellite glial cells in the DRG was observed, and the reactions of these cells correlated well with pain-related behavior. TNF-alpha was expressed in both endoneurial macrophages and activated satellite glial cells, and TNF-alpha expression was significantly increased in the early stage (P < 0.05).

Activated satellite glial cells also expressed GDNF, and its expression was significantly increased and persisted for 28 days (P < 0.05).\n\nConclusion. Activation of DRG glial cells and endoneurial macrophages plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the neuropathic pain state. TNF-alpha actively released from activated glial cells Histone Methyltransf inhibitor and endoneurial macrophages in the DRG might initiate and maintain the neuropathic pain together with TNF-alpha derived from the applied NP. In the recovery phase, persistent expression of GDNF from activated satellite glial cells might play an important role to restore the function of damaged neurons and recover from neuropathic pain.”
“It is not clear how frequent is copper deficiency in humans. Current copper markers are not sensitive enough

to detect early copper deficiency and new markers are needed. CCS is a candidate to become a copper biomarker. Objective: Measuring CCS mRNA relative expression in malnourished children and compare results (a) with those of the same children after nutritional recovery and (b) with well-nourished children. Method: On admission to the protocol and after 15 day nutritional treatment, severely (G1 = 18) and moderately (G2 = 10) malnourished children were compared with well-nourished healthy controls (G3 = 15), measuring anthropometric indicators, BAY 63-2521 mw blood biochemistry, Cu, Fe and Zn serum concentrations, ceruloplasmin, C Reactive protein and mRNA abundance of CCS, SOD and MT2 in peripheral mononuclear cells. Result: In malnourished groups, mean serum copper concentration was below the cut-off on admission to hospital and increased after 15 days (t-test, p smaller than 0.01). On admission to protocol, CCS mRNA abundance in G1 and G2 was higher than in G3 (one way ANOVA, p smaller than 0.001). After 15 days, CCS expression decreased as expected (t-test, p smaller than 0.001). Initial SOD mRNA relative abundance was higher in study groups than controls and also between G1 and G2 (One way ANOVA, both p smaller than 0.01); after 15 days, G1 and G2 were not different (t-test, NS).

The erythromycin toxicity was observed at lower concentration whe

The erythromycin toxicity was observed at lower concentration when exposure time increased. A 4 mu g/L erythromycin concentration was toxic to heterotrophic bacteria on

a 5-day time exposure, and a 5 mg/L concentration inhibited nitrification. These findings are in agreement with the microscopic studies, which showed a latency time before the lower antibiotic concentrations began to kill bacteria. Microscope slide wells were used as micro-reactors in which erythromycin concentration ranged from 0.1 to 1 mg/L. After 45 min there were 94% (SD 3.8) of living bacteria in control micro-reactors, 67% (SD 3.1) in micro-reactors that contained 0.1 mg/L erythromycin and 37% (SD 18.6) in micro-reactors that contained MK-2206 datasheet 1 mg/L erythromycin. CLSM allowed visualization of isolated stained cells in the three-dimensional structure of damaged flocs. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives: Switching to second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) largely depends on careful clinical assessment and access to biological measurements. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the incidence of switching to second-line ART in sub-Saharan Africa and its main programmatic determinants.\n\nMethods: We searched 2 databases for studies reporting the incidence rate of switching to second-line ART in adults living in sub-Saharan

Africa. Data on the incidence rate of switching were pooled, and random-effect models

were used to evaluate the effect of factors measured at the programme level on this incidence rate.\n\nResults: Nine studies (157,340 patients) in 21 countries were HKI272 included in the meta-analysis. All studies considered patients under first-line ART and conditions to initiate ART were similar across studies. Overall, 3,736 (2.4%) patients switched to second-line ART. Incidence rate of switch was in mean 2.65 per 100 person-years (PY) (95% confidence interval: 2.01-3.30); it ranged from 0.42 to ASP2215 4.88 per 100 PY and from 0 to 4.80 per 100 PY in programmes with and without viral load monitoring, respectively. No factors measured at the programme level were associated with the incidence rate of switching to second-line ART.\n\nConclusion: The low incidence rate of switching to second-line ART suggests that the monitoring of patients under ART is challenging and that access to second-line ART is ineffective; efforts should be made to increase access to second-line ART to those in need by providing monitoring tools, education and training, as well as a more convenient regimen.”
“Heme and heme degradation products play critical roles in numerous biological phenomena which until now have only been partially understood. One reason for this is the very low concentrations at which free heme, its complexes and the partly unstable degradation products occur in living cells.

The application of the Cox regression PS is illustrated using dat

The application of the Cox regression PS is illustrated using data from a recent study of the safety of pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine during pregnancy.”
“A Schiff-base fluorescent probe – N, N-/-bis(salicylidene) trans 1, 2 – diaminocyclohexane (H (2) L) was synthesized and evaluated as a chemoselective Zn2+ sensor. Upon treatment with Zn2+, the complexation of H (2) L with Zn2+ resulted in a bathochromic shift with a pronounced enhancement in the fluorescence intensity in ethanol solution. Moreover, other common alkali, alkaline earth and transition metal ions failed to induce response or minimal spectral changes. Notably, this chemosensor could distinguish clearly Zn2+ from Cd2+.

The stoichiometric ratio and association constant were evaluated using Benesi – Hildebrand relation giving 1:1 stoichiometry. This further corroborated 1:1 complex formation based on Job’s plot GF120918 analyses.”
“AIM: To investigate the effectiveness learn more of phenol

for the relief of cancer pain by endoscopic ultrasound-guided celiac plexus neurolysis (EUS-CPN). METHODS: Twenty-two patients referred to our hospital with cancer pain from August 2009 to July 2011 for EUS-CPN were enrolled in this study. Phenol was used for 6 patients with alcohol intolerance and ethanol was used for 16 patients without alcohol intolerance. The primary endpoint was the positive response rate (pain score decreased to smaller than = 3) on postoperative day 7. Secondary endpoints included the time to onset of pain relief, duration of pain relief, and complication rates. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the positive response rate on day 7. The rates were 83% and 69% in the phenol and ethanol groups, respectively. Regarding the time to onset of pain relief, in the phenol group, the median pre-treatment pain score was 5, whereas the post-treatment scores decreased to 1.5, 1.5, and 1.5 at 2, 8, and 24 h, respectively (P smaller than 0.05). In the ethanol group, the median pre-treatment pain score was 5.5, whereas the post-treatment

scores significantly decreased to 2.5, 2.5, and 2.5 at 2, 8, and 24 h, respectively (P smaller than 0.01). There was no significant difference in the duration of pain relief between the phenol and ethanol groups. No significant difference was found in the rate of complications between the 2 groups; however, burning pain and inebriation occurred only in the ethanol group. CONCLUSION: Phenol had similar pain-relieving effects to ethanol in EUS-CPN. Comparing the incidences of inebriation and burning pain, phenol may be superior to ethanol in EUS-CPN procedures. (C) 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.”
“We present the development and performance of a Fourier transformation (FT)-based Raman spectrometer working with visible laser (532nm) excitation.