Cumulative risk of 1-year MACE after LT was analyzed using Kaplan

Cumulative risk of 1-year MACE after LT was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate logistic regression analysis assessed factors associated with 30-day MACE and Cox proportional hazard models assessed 1-year MACE post-LT. RESULTS: Of 1024 LT recipients (mean age 56.3 ± 9.7 years, 65.9% male, 71.6% white), 322 (31.4%) had at least one MACE within 1

year of LT; most events [238/322 (73.9%)] occurred within the first 30 days of transplant. The most common underlying cause of a 1-year MACE was heart failure [156/322 (48.4%)], followed by atrial fibrillation (40.1%) and stroke (23.9%). Distribution was similar for 30-day events. In multivariate analysis, Selleckchem ABT263 independent predictors of 30-day MACE were older age [Odds ratio (OR): 1.04 (1.02-1.06)] Dinaciclib and higher calculated model for end-stage liver

disease (MELD) score [OR: 1.05 (1.04-1.07)] at transplant, non-Hispanic ethnicity [OR: 2.44 (1.34-4.42)], and prior history of heart failure [OR: 2.3 (1.6-3.4)], isch- emic heart disease [OR: 1.5 (1.09-2.1)], and stroke [OR: 2.4 (1.2-4.8)]. For 1-year MACE, only older age [Hazard Ratio (HR)=1.05 (1.03-1.06)], higher MELD score [HR: 1.04 (1.031.05), non-Hispanic ethnicity (HR: 1.74 (1.15-2.63), and prior history of heart failure [HR=1.9 (1.5-2.4)] and stroke [HR: 1.8 (1.1-2.8)] remained predictive. The models showed moderate discrimination (c-statistic 0.73, 95% CI: 0.69-0.77). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac complications after liver transplant are common (over 1/3 of patients experience a MACE within 1 year of LT) and the majority of events are related to non-coronary causes. Pre-transplant heart failure, ischemic heart disease and stroke, all modifiable risk factors, substantially increase risk of an early MACE. Future prospective studies aimed at determining whether aggressive risk factor reduction of modifiable factors can decrease non-coronary MACE and improve post-LT outcomes are needed. Disclosures:

The following people have nothing to disclose: Lisa B. VanWagner, Bing Bing Weitner, Tanvi Subramanian, Sarah Uttal, Alfred W. Rademaker, Josh Levitsky, DNA Methyltransferas inhibitor Donald M. Lloyd-Jones, Anton I. Skaro INTRODUCTION: Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) in liver transplant (LT) recipients can occur 3-16% of patients, however there is scarce data regarding the specific characteristics, incidence, and long term outcome of this condition. The aim of this analysis was to estimate the incidence and outcome of SOD in a cohort of LT recipients. METHODS: We reviewed 460 ERCP’s performed in LT-patients with duct-to-duct biliary anastomosis at Hospital Clinic, Barcelona from 2003 to 2013. Information was obtained from electronic health records and a prospec-tively collected database. SOD in LT recipients was defined as the presence of cholestasis, elevated liver enzymes, dilated bile duct and absence of alternative diagnosis at ERCP. Patients with SOD underwent a biliary sphincterotomy with adequate drainage of contrast and bile.

Correlation between the two methods was found in ipsilateral mese

Correlation between the two methods was found in ipsilateral mesencephalon. In addition to DTI method, Selumetinib clinical trial TA could assist in revealing the changes caused by infarction, also outside the lesion site. Damaged areas were found more heterogeneous and random in texture compared to unaffected sites. “
“To examine the distributions of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) observed metabolites in Parkinson’s disease (PD) throughout the whole brain. Twelve PD patients and 18 age-matched controls were studied using neuropsychological testing, MRI and volumetric

MR spectroscopic imaging. Average values of signal normalized metabolite values for N-acetyl-aspartate, total-creatine, and total-choline (NAA, total-Cre, total-Cho, respectively) and their ratios were calculated for gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in each lobar brain region. Analyses revealed altered metabolite values in PD subjects relative to controls within the GM of the temporal lobe (right: elevated Cre, P = .027; decreased NAA/Cre, P = .019; decreased Cho/Cre, P = .001 and left: decreased NAA/Cre; P = .001, decreased Cho/Cre, P = .007); the right occipital lobe (decreased NAA, P = .032 and NAA/Cre, P = .016);

and the total cerebrum GM (decreased NAA/Cre, P = .029). No meaningful correlations were obtained between abnormal metabolite values and the neuropsychological measures. PD is associated with widespread selleckchem alterations of brain metabolite concentrations, with a primary finding of increased creatine. Higher creatine values in our PD sample may reflect greater neuronal energy expenditure early in the disease process that is compensatory. This is the first whole brain MRS study of PD that has examined metabolite changes across a large fraction of the brain volume, including the cortical mantle. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a noninvasive technique that enables measurement of several low molecular weight metabolites

Clomifene in the brain. It offers an opportunity to examine changes in chemical markers that cannot be detected by conventional MRI. Previous MRS studies in Parkinson’s disease (PD) examining brain regions affected by dopamine depletion in the striatum have yielded mixed results. Some studies reported decreased ratios between NAA and other metabolites in the substantia nigra and lentiform nucleus[1] and striatum.[2-4] Ellis and colleagues[5] reported no metabolite differences between controls and PD patients receiving levodopa but did find a significant reduction in N-acetyl-aspartate/creatine (NAA/Cre) ratio among the untreated PD patients. Some studies report no differences between PD and control subjects in either metabolite ratios or concentrations of NAA, Cre, and choline (Cho).

We studied the southern river otter Lontra provocax and the Ameri

We studied the southern river otter Lontra provocax and the American mink at five marine sites, where they coexisted,

and at one freshwater Selleck 3-deazaneplanocin A site, where only mink were present, in southern Chile. We used the signs of both species to study their habitat use and diet, and radio tracking to study their activity patterns. The results indicated that otters and minks tended to use different habitats in marine environments, the otter favouring littoral areas that are rocky and steep while the mink favours areas of gravel with a gently sloping intertidal zone. These differences were also reflected in their diets. At one of the coastal sites where the diet of the two species was similar, the activity pattern of minks was mostly diurnal, which is unusual. Daporinad molecular weight While differential habitat use may be the way through which the American

mink is able to coexist with the southern river otter in coastal habitats of southern Chile, it is possible that otters are having an effect on individual minks by affecting their activity patterns, although more observations are needed to confirm this hypothesis. “
“In ectotherms, decreasing season length and lower temperature towards higher latitudes often favour higher growth and developmental rates. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms and particularly the hormonal correlates of clinal variation remain unexplored. The growth hormone (GH) plays a crucial role in growth of all vertebrates and high expression of GH is associated with rapid growth in many species. We tested the hypothesis that GH expression is correlated with a latitudinal gradient in growth in Paclitaxel solubility dmso Scandinavian Rana temporaria tadpoles. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we measured GH and growth hormone receptor (GHR) expression at two time points from laboratory-raised tadpoles originating from eight populations collected along the latitudinal gradient. To explore latitudinal differences in stress-induced changes in GH expression, we also compared GH expression in tadpoles raised with and without predators. In accordance

with previous studies we found a clear latitudinal gradient in growth. There were no latitudinal effects, or predator-induced effects on GH or GHR expression. However, there was some indication for among-population variation in GH expression. The lack of a latitudinal pattern in GH and GHR expression may be due to that the growth promoting effects of GH is dependent on other factors including insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF), IGF-binding proteins or prolactin. Further studies on these factors may provide insight on the proximal mechanisms of differences in growth in R. temporaria tadpoles. “
“Analyses of leopard Panthera pardus prey choice reveal a strong preference for species weighing 10–40 kg.

To gauge the significance of metabolite changes, measurements fro

To gauge the significance of metabolite changes, measurements from 0 hours to 96 hours postdose were used PLX-4720 concentration to estimate the area under the curve (AUC). AUC Testing allows pooling of the data across time for a single test of differences in trend. The

R package PK was utilized to estimate metabolite AUC for each sample. A t test was then performed to test for differences in AUC between cases and controls. Microarray data were obtained using Agilent’s Feature Extraction software (v. 7.5), using defaults for all parameters. The Feature Extraction Software performs error modeling before data are loaded into a database system. Images and GEML files were exported from the Agilent Feature Extraction software and deposited into Rosetta Resolver (v. 5.0, build (Rosetta Biosoftware, Kirkland, WA). Rosetta Resolver combines data hybridizations using an error-weighted average that adjusts for additive and multiplicative noise.7 The resultant universal control profiles

were then exported as normalized log ratios, median centered across subjects and utilized for further statistical analyses by the R-project software.8 Principal component analysis was performed to investigate the presence of experimental artifacts. The first component of variation was defined by sample ethnicity, and this component was removed to produce an adjusted dataset that did not contain an ethnicity bias.9 The Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor resultant ratio profiles from both the ethnically unadjusted and adjusted datasets were analyzed for differential gene expression. First, a two-tailed t test was utilized comparing universal control profiles with time-matched sham controls and statistically significant DEGs were identified at the P < 0.05 confidence level. DEGs from both datasets were then analyzed with ingenuity

pathways analysis (IPA) (Ingenuity Systems, Canonical pathways analysis identified the pathways Thalidomide from the IPA library of canonical pathways that were most significant to the dataset. The significance of the association between the dataset and the canonical pathway was measured in 2 ways: 1) A ratio of the number of genes from the dataset that map to the pathway divided by the total number of genes that map to the canonical pathway was obtained. 2) Benjamini-Hochberg testing corrected P-values were used to determine the probability that association between genes in the dataset and the canonical pathway is explained by chance alone. To increase our confidence in the IPA canonical pathway analysis, we utilized the more stringent gene set analysis (GSA) methodology on both the adjusted and unadjusted datasets comparing the cases to controls at each timepoint.12 For the five human overdose subjects, universal control profiles were normalized to five ethnically and gender-matched controls. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis with a Bonferroni multiple test correction was performed to identify DEGs.

In total, 80 female outpatients were interviewed,

In total, 80 female outpatients were interviewed, HM781-36B cell line and after implementing inclusion/exclusion criteria, thirty females were considered eligible to participate in the study. Half (n = 15) were randomly selected to participate in the treatment group. Four participants of this group failed to complete the treatment sessions (n = 11). The Acceptance and Commitment Therapy group received the medical treatment as usual and 8 sessions of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. The other half (n = 15) served as the control group that received only medical treatment as usual. The short form of McGill pain questionnaire, the migraine disability assessment scale, and the trait subscale of the state-trait anxiety

inventory were administered, which operationalized 3 dimensions of impact of chronic headache, sensory pain, disability, and emotional distress, respectively, to explore the impact of recurrent headache episodes. Pretest and post-test measures on these 3 dimensions of impact were the primary outcome measures of this study. Analyses of covariance with the pretreatment score used as a covariate were conducted on pain intensity, degree of disability, and level selleck kinase inhibitor of affective distress before and after therapy to assess therapeutic intervention effectiveness. Results.— Chronic tension type of headache (63%) and chronic migraine without aura (37%) were the headache types reported by the participants. Data analyses

indicated the significant reduction in disability (F[1,29] = 33.72, P < .0001) and affective distress (F[1,29] = 28.27, P < .0001), but not in reported sensory aspect of pain (F[1,29] = .81, P = .574), in the treatment group in comparison with the control group. Conclusions.— The effectiveness of a brief acceptance and commitment additive therapy in the treatment of Iranian

outpatient females with chronic headache represents a significant scientific finding and clinical progress, as it implies that this Sclareol kind of treatment can be effectively delivered in a hospital setting. “
“Patients with vestibular migraine (VM) suffer attacks of vertigo that often occur in isolation from headache attacks. We aimed to assess and compare vestibular function interictally in patients with VM and patients with migraine without vertigo (M). Thirty-eight patients diagnosed with definite VM according to the Neuhauser criteria, and 32 patients diagnosed with M according to the International Headache Society criteria were examined between attacks using a broad battery of bedside vestibular tests, a caloric test, and videonystagmography. Overall, 70% of the VM patients and 34% of the M patients showed abnormalities on one or more of the 14 performed vestibular tests (P = .006). Abnormal findings were more frequent in VM than in M patients on Romberg’s test, test for voluntary fixation suppression of the vestibular ocular reflex and test for static positional nystagmus (P = .03, .01 and .04, respectively).

0001, EOT rate, 92%, 24/26 vs 64%, 7/11, P = 0 05) There was no

0001, EOT rate, 92%, 24/26 vs 64%, 7/11, P = 0.05). There was no significant difference of the SVR rate between major and minor

alleles (major, 65%, 17/26 vs minor, 36%, 4/11, P = 0.15). Figure 2(a) shows the result of stratified analysis according to the previous treatment response and HCV RNA at the start of re-treatment. The significant difference in SVR observed between high (≥5 log10 IU/mL) and low (<5 log10 IU/mL) baseline viral loads was still found in both previous relapsers (P = 0.02) and previous non-responders (P = 0.02). In patients with a high baseline viral load, previous relapsers achieved a higher SVR rate than previous non-responders (P < 0.0001).

Next, the results of stratified Dabrafenib analyses according selleck chemicals to IL-28B genotype and previous treatment response or HCV RNA at the start of re-treatment showed no significant difference in SVR rates between the IL-28B genotype in patients with relapse after previous treatment (P = 0.63) (Fig. 2b). All patients with less than 5 log10 IU/mL of HCV RNA achieved SVR despite their IL-28B genotype and the SVR rates of patients with 5 log10 IU/mL or more of HCV RNA did not differ between IL-28B genotypes (Fig. 2c). Multivariate analysis among the factors of relapse to previous treatment response, HCV RNA at the start of re-treatment and IL-28B genotype showed that relapse after previous treatment response bore the most predictable relationship to SVR in re-treatment (P = 0.074). As for the efficacy of re-treatment according to treatment duration among patients with HCV RNA negativity

during re-treatment, Meloxicam the SVR rate of 72-week treatment was significantly higher than that of 48-week treatment (72 weeks, 73%, 29/40, vs 48 weeks, 52%, 12/25, P < 0.05). This significant difference was especially found in patients who attained c-EVR but not RVR on re-treatment (72 weeks, 73%, 16/22, vs 48 weeks, 38%, 5/13, P < 0.05) but not in patients who attained RVR or LVR (Fig. 3). In genotype 2, the HCV RNA negative rate on re-treatment was 59% (16/27) at week 4, 85% (23/27) at week 12 and 93% (25/27) at week 24, and the SVR rate was 63% (17/27). The two patients with NR in previous treatment did not attain SVR with re-treatment. The factors associated with SVR were assessed by univariate analysis and only the factor of younger age at the start of re-treatment showed marginal significance (P = 0.06) (Table 4). Among the patients with RVR on re-treatment, the SVR rates were similar at 75% (6/8) to those with 24-week and 48-week treatment.

Hepatic metastases have variable appearances depending on the pri

Hepatic metastases have variable appearances depending on the primary tumor and are characterized Raf inhibitor as hypervascular or hypovascular, enhancing more or less than surrounding parenchyma (Fig. 7). Hypervascular metastases are seen with neuroendocrine tumors, renal cell carcinoma, thyroid carcinoma, melanoma, and sarcoma. Metastases from other primaries tend to be hypovascular. Internal hemorrhage may occur with metastases from renal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and lung cancer, often demonstrating

T1 hyperintensity (Fig. 8). Hepatobiliary imaging with Eovist and DWI can be useful for detection of small hepatic metastases, demonstrating improved sensitivity over traditional MRI and CT.17-22, 85, 86 MRI is a highly specific and accurate modality for FLL characterization. An experienced MR radiologist is essential to maintain high-quality Y27632 liver MR protocols, determine appropriate indications for hepatocyte versus extracellular contrast agents, and guide management. Although many hepatic lesions have characteristic imaging features, consideration of the clinical context, in particular the presence or absence of underlying liver disease when considering

HCC or ICC, is essential to confidently diagnose and direct management in these patients. “
“During liver development and regeneration, hepatocytes undergo rapid cell division and face an increased risk of DNA damage associated with active DNA replication. The mechanism that protects proliferating hepatocytes from replication-induced DNA damage remains unclear. Nucleostemin (NS) is known to be up-regulated during liver regeneration, and loss of NS is associated with increased DNA damage in cancer cells. To determine whether NS is involved in protecting the genome integrity of proliferating hepatocytes, we created an albumin promoter-driven NS conditional-null (albNScko) mouse model. Livers of albNScko mice begin to show loss of NS in developing Inositol monophosphatase 1 hepatocytes from the first postnatal week and increased DNA damage and hepatocellular injury at 1-2 weeks of age. At 3-4 weeks, albNScko

livers develop bile duct hyperplasia and show increased apoptotic cells, necrosis, regenerative nodules, and evidence suggestive of hepatic stem/progenitor cell activation. CCl4 treatment enhances degeneration and DNA damage in NS-deleted hepatocytes and increases biliary hyperplasia and A6+ cells in albNScko livers. After 70% partial hepatectomy, albNScko livers show increased DNA damage in parallel with a blunted and prolonged regenerative response. The DNA damage in NS-depleted hepatocytes is explained by the impaired recruitment of a core DNA repair enzyme, RAD51, to replication-induced DNA damage foci. Conclusion: This work reveals a novel genome-protective role of NS in developing and regenerating hepatocytes.

Elevated AAC is rapidly reversed by transplantation and to a less

Elevated AAC is rapidly reversed by transplantation and to a lesser degree by standard find more hemofiltration. Disclosures: Julia Wendon – Consulting: Pulsion, Excalenz William Bernal – Consulting: Vital Therapies Inc The following

people have nothing to disclose: Vishal C. Patel, Beatriz Mateos Muhoz, Elizabeth Sizer, Charalambos G. Antoniades, Christopher Willars, Georg Auzinger Background: Impaired neutrophil function has been demonstrated in acute liver failure and serves as a biomarker involved in organ dysfunction and increase susceptibility to sepsis. However, its role in acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) remains completely unknown. Patients and methods: We assessed phenotypic and functional alterations of neutrophils and their contribution in hepatic injury in 17 hepatitis B virus-related ACLF (HBV-ACLF), 19 alcohol–related ACLF (alcoholic-ACLF), and 42 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in comparison to 18 healthy controls (HC).Neutrophil phagocytic activity (NPA) was determined by the uptake of opsonized E. coli and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production with or without E. coli stimulation.CXCR-1 and CXCR-2 expression was analyzed by flowcytometry, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and qRT-PCR. Results: Percentage

of neutrophils was higher in both HBV and alcoholic-ACLF patients than CHB and HC (Table). Contrarily, NPA was significantly impaired in ACLF along with significant increase in ROS. Flowcytometry and IHC showed up-regulated CXCR-1 and 2 in ACLF. In ACLF, intrahepatic RNA Synthesis inhibitor CXCR-1 and 2 gene expression was higher more than 6 fold (p<0.00) with a significant increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-17, IL-23, CXCL-8, CCL-20 and GM-CSF). Role of neutrophils in hepatic injury was determined by co-culturing of LPS stimulated

neutrophils or their supernatant with HepG2 cells. As compared to controls, activated neutrophils from ACLF significantly induced early apoptosis (p<0.04, 0.05) and necrosis (p<0.00, 0.00) of HepG2 cells by direct contact as well as cytokine/ ROS dependent mechanisms. Conclusions: ACLF patients have increased frequency of neutrophils, with high expression of migration receptors CXCR1/CXCR2. These activated neutrophils produce high ROS but have impaired phagocytic activity with high Thiamet G pro-inflammatory cytokine propagating hepatic injury and liver failure. Neutrophil functional markers represent a powerful tool for drug targets and clinical management of ACLF patients. Phenotypic and functional characterization of neutrophils in different diseased groups Disclosures: The following people have nothing to disclose: Arshi Khanam, Nirupma Trehan Pati, Peggy Riese, Archana Rastogi, Carlos A. Guzman, Shiv K. Sarin The type II bacterial clustered, regularly interspaced, palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated (Cas) system has been engineered into a powerful genome editing tool consisting of the Cas9 nuclease and a single guide RNA (sgRNA).

“Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ma

“Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of zirconium dioxide crowns in preparations with two different finish line

configurations before and after porcelain firing cycles, after a glaze cycle, and after cementation. Materials and Methods: Twenty human molar teeth were prepared to receive full this website crowns; ten were prepared with a 90° round shoulder and another ten with a 45° chamfer finish line. Zirconium dioxide copings were fabricated using CAD/CAM technology (Lava™ system). They were then veneered with a low-fusing glass-ceramic (IPS e.max® Ceram). Finally, they were glazed and cemented with a resin-composite cement (RelyX™ Unicem, Aplicap™). Measurements for marginal adaptation using stereomicroscopy Venetoclax mouse (40×) were performed at four stages: copings (S1), after porcelain firing cycles (S2), after glazing (S3), and after cementation (S4). One-way ANOVA was used to assess the influence of the finish line design on the marginal adaptation in each stage. Two-way ANOVA with

repeated measurements was performed to assess the influence on the marginal adaptation of the porcelain firing cycles, glaze firing cycle, and cementation. Results: The measured marginal gap mean values for the shoulder group (μm) were: 50.13 (S1), 54.32 (S2), 55.12 (S3), and 59.83 (S4). The values for the chamfer group were: 63.56 (S1), 71.85 (S2), 74.12 (S3), and 76.97 (S4). When comparing marginal gaps between specimens with two different finish lines, differences were noticed at the four studied stages (p= 0.0165, p= 0.0027, p= 0.0009, and p= 0.0009, respectively). No differences were manifested in the marginal gap measurements of the shoulder group at the different stages of fabrication (p= 0.4335); however, in the chamfer group, differences were noticed between S1 and S3 (p= 0.0042). Conclusions: Marginal adaptation was influenced by the finish

line design. The firing cycles Etomidate significantly affected the chamfer group; nevertheless, the marginal gap was within the range of clinical acceptability. “
“Significant maxillary anterior osseous defects are considered contraindications for fixed partial dentures. This clinical report discusses the surgical and restorative treatment protocol of a patient who sustained trauma to the premaxilla and was treated by distraction osteogenesis to provide an adequate restorative platform for an implant-retained fixed prosthesis. “
“To review methods used to investigate marginal adaptation of crowns and fixed dental prostheses (FDPs), and to discuss testing variables employed and their influence on results.

970) CONCLUSION: TDF monotherapy is as effective as TDF plus NA

970). CONCLUSION: TDF monotherapy is as effective as TDF plus NA combination therapy in patients with SOR to ADF with or without NA in CHB patients with prior LMV resistance. TDF with or without NA was effective

even in cases with ADF resistance. Efficacy Selleck ABT-737 of TDF with or without NAwas similarin NR vs PVR patients treated with ADF containing regimen due to prior LMV resistance. Disclosures: The following people have nothing to disclose: Joohan Park, Hyo Jung Cho, Sun Young Park, Seon Joo Ahn, Soon Sun Kim, Jae Youn Cheong, Sung Won Cho Background: A substantial proportion of HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in China has high viral load (HBV DNA levels >108 copies/ml). These patients are particularly likely to display partial treatment responses with less potent nucleos(t)ide analogues with low barrier to resistance. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy, safety and emergence of resistance mutation to entecavir (ETV) monother-apy versus de novo

combination of lamivudine (LAM) and ade-fovir dipivoxil (ADV) in naTve HBeAg-positive CHB patients with high HBV viral load. Methods: According to the Climber Study protocol, 200-240 NA-naïve HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients with high HBV viral load (HBV DNA >108copies/ ml by COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HBV v2.0) were designed to entry this study. Patients were assigned into 2 groups: monotherapy group (ETV 0.5 mg/d) or combination therapy group (LAM 100 mg/d + ADV 10 mg/d) for 96 weeks. At present, 120 patients have been recruited in a single center.

Preliminary data of 64 patients (ETV monother-apy N = 28, LAM + ADV combination therapy N = 36) who have completed 48 weeks treatment were analyzed. Results: Phospholipase D1 Baseline characteristics of patients in both groups were comparable: age (27±7.33 years vs. 34.87±8.52 years, P = 0.617), gender ratio (male/female, 18/10 vs. 30/6 P = 0.081), mean baseline HBV DNA (9.05±0.36 log10 copies/ml vs. 8.94±0.46 log10 copies/ml P = 0.219), mean baseline ALT (147.55±57.46 U/L vs. 139.86±65.25 U/L P = 0.929). After 48 weeks of treatment, the rates of HBV DNA <300 copies/ ml were 50.00% (14/28) in monotherapy group and 27.78% (10/36) in combination therapy group (P = 0.069) while the rates of HBV DNA<100 copies/ml were 39.29% (11/28) in monotherapy group and 13.89% (5/36) in combination therapy group (P = 0.020). No virological breakthrough occurred in the monotherapy group, while 3 patients in the combination therapy group had virological breakthrough with confirmed LAM-resistant variants (1 case rtL180M + rtM204I, 2 cases rtM204I). ALT normalization rates in monotherapy and combination therapy groups were 82.14% (23/28) and 72.22% (26/36), respectively (P = 0.353). The rates of HBeAg loss were 42.86% (12/28) in monotherapy group and 16.67% (6/36) in combination therapy group (P = 0.021). There were no serious adverse events in both groups.