Both of the formulations were found to be following the zero orde

Both of the formulations were found to be following the zero order degradation. At elevated temperature and humidity, decreased activation energy and increased exponential factor lowered the stability of the formulations. The predicted shelf life of paracetamol and omeprazole at 25 degrees C was found to be 24.42 and 21.00 months, respectively. The results of the present study indicate that R406 the pellets of paracetamol and omeprazole prepared by sieving-spheronisation

are reasonably stable.”
“Drought is the major environmental threat to agricultural production and distribution worldwide. Adaptation by plants to dehydration stress is a complex biological process that involves global changes in gene expression and metabolite composition. Here, using one type of functional genomics analysis, metabolomics, we characterized the metabolic phenotypes of Arabidopsis wild-type and a knockout mutant of the NCED3 gene (nc3-2) under dehydration stress. NCED3 plays a role in the dehydration-inducible biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), a phytohormone that is important in the dehydration-stress response in higher plants. Metabolite profiling performed using two types of mass spectrometry (MS) systems, gas chromatography/time-of-flight MS (GC/TOF-MS) and capillary electrophoresis MS (CE-MS), revealed that accumulation of amino acids depended on ABA production, but the level of the oligosaccharide

raffinose was regulated by ABA independently under dehydration stress. Metabolic network analysis showed that global metabolite-metabolite correlations occurred in dehydration-increased amino acids in wild-type, and strong correlations with raffinose were JNK-IN-8 mouse reconstructed in nc3-2. An integrated metabolome and transcriptome analysis revealed ABA-dependent transcriptional regulation of the biosynthesis of MMP inhibitor the branched-chain amino acids, saccharopine, proline and polyamine. This metabolomics analysis revealed new molecular mechanisms of dynamic metabolic networks in response to dehydration stress.”
“To examine

the potential confounding effect of biological maturation on the relations between chronological age and health-related quality of life in adolescent British females.

Biological maturation, chronological age, and health-related quality of life were assessed in 366 British female students in years 7-10 (M = 13.0 years, SD = 0.8). The Kid-Screen 10 was used to assess health-related quality of life. Percentage of predicted adult height attained at measurement was used as an estimate of biological maturation.

Pearson product moment correlation demonstrated a statistically significant inverse relation between chronological age and health-related quality of life. This relation was, however, attenuated and non-significant once biological maturation was controlled for.

Researchers studying health-related quality of life in youth should consider and/or control for the potential confounding effect of biological maturation.

(C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc J Appl Polym Sci 119:

(C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 119: BMS-777607 cost 1848-1856, 2011″
“The management of a previously reported case of massive osteolysis of the mandible with intravenous bisphosphonate, vascularized free bone graft, and dental implants is reported. Restoration of adequate cosmetics and masticatory function was achieved. Despite the use of bisphosphonates, there were no complications with osseointegration. The reconstruction remained stable and functional 6 years afterward. ( Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol

Oral Radiol Endod 2010; 109: 238-241)”
“Mass diffusion of rhodamine 6G (R6G) in water-based alumina nanofluids is studied by means of total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. We report a mass diffusivity enhancement

that reaches an order of magnitude in a 2 vol % nanofluid when compared to the value in deionized water. Since experiments were performed with positively charged R6G, interfacial complexation between the dye and the nanoparticles was not observed. The effect of local density variations on mass diffusivity measurements is also addressed. An explanation for the enhancement of mass diffusion is presented using arguments based on dispersion, and it is shown that it correctly describes the order of magnitude differences Linsitinib molecular weight between the thermal conductivity and mass diffusivity enhancements reported in the

literature. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3514138]“
“Coordination polymers containing bisphenol-A, formaldehyde, and transition metal complexes of ethylenediamine [M(en)(2)] were synthesized by the reaction of bisphenol-A, formaldehyde, and M(en)(2) complex in alkaline medium, using M for Fe(+3), Co(+2), Ni(+2), Cu(+2), and Zn(+2). The materials selleck chemical were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, UV-Vis, (1)H-NMR spectra, TGA, and magnetic susceptibility measurement. The geometry of the central metal ions was determined by electronic spectral studies and magnetic moment measurement. The M-N and C-N bonds were confirmed by the IR spectra of the polychelates. The (1)H-NMR spectra of the chelating resins confirmed polycondensation with well-defined peaks for bridging methylene functions. Complexation studies with transition metal ions revealed effective coordination of the bisphenol-A formaldehyde resin. The antimicrobial activities of these chelated resins were screened against E. coli, S. dysantrea (bacteria), and C. albicans, A. niger (fungi) by using agar well diffusion method. All the polymeric chelates show promising antimicrobial activities. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 119: 1251-1258, 2011″

Results: Corn oil supplementation had no effect on the muscle pro

Results: Corn oil supplementation had no effect on the muscle protein synthesis rate and the extent of anabolic signaling element phosphorylation in muscle. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation

had no effect on the basal rate of muscle protein synthesis (mean 6 SEM: 0.051 +/- 0.005%/h compared with 0.053 +/- 0.008%/h before and after supplementation, respectively; P = 0.80) but augmented the hyperaminoacidemia-hyperinsulinemia-induced increase in the TGFbeta inhibitor rate of muscle protein synthesis (from 0.009 +/- 0.005%/h above basal values to 0.031 +/- 0.003%/h above basal values; P < 0.01), which was accompanied by greater increases in muscle mTOR(Ser2448) (P = 0.08) and p70s6k(Thr389) (P < 0.01) phosphorylation.

Conclusion: Omega-3 fatty acids stimulate muscle protein synthesis in older adults and may be useful for the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. This trial was registered at clinical trials. gov as NCT00794079. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;93:402-12.”
“Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most widely used prescription and nonprescription drugs in the world. The discovery of cyclooxygenase (COY) as

the target of NSAIDs, the subsequent identification of two isoforms Citarinostat price of COY (COX-1 and COX-2), and studies of their regulation and sites of expression led to the hypothesis that COX-2 is the molecular target for the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of NSAIDs. A corollary was that COX-2-selective inhibitors (COXIBs) would retain the desirable effects of NSAIDs without some of their liabilities (e.g., gastrointestinal toxicity, which was ascribed to COX-I inhibition). The first marketed COXIBs exhibited reduced gastrointestinal side effects relative to traditional NSAIDs and were enormous commercial successes. However, clinical trials testing the hypothesis that COXIBs prevent recurrence of premalignant colon polyps uncovered adverse cardiovascular effects that are mechanism based. This review provides

an overview of the discovery, development, and difficulties of the COMBS, a perspective Smoothened Agonist supplier on what has been learned, and speculation on the way forward.”
“Malaria in the 21st century is showing signs of declining over much of its distribution, including several countries in Africa where previously this was not thought to be feasible. Yet for the most part the strategies to attack the infection are similar to those of the 1950s. Three major Journals have recently drawn attention to the situation, stressing the importance of research, describing the successes and defining semantics related to control. But there is a need to stress the importance of local sustainability, and consider somewhat urgently how individual endemic countries can plan and implement the programmes that are currently financed, for the most part, by donor institutions. On an immediate basis research should be more focused on a data driven approach to control.

Opioids are the mainstay of therapy for SCD-related pain However

Opioids are the mainstay of therapy for SCD-related pain. However, a subset of patients report continued pain despite escalating doses of opioids. Tolerance and opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) have been considered as possible explanations for this phenomenon. The activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor has been implicated in both tolerance and OIH. As a NMDA receptor agonist, ketamine has been shown to modulate opioid tolerance and OIH in animal models and clinical settings. Low-dose ketamine,

by virtue of its NMDA receptor agonist activity, could be a useful adjuvant to opioid therapy in patients with refractory SCD-related pain. Based on limited studies of adjuvant ketamine use for pain management,

SBE-β-CD nmr low-dose ketamine continuous infusion appears safe. Further clinical investigations are warranted to fully support the use of low-dose ketamine infusion in patients with SCD-related pain.”
“Background: Since the GSK2126458 purchase introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in the United States, the need for additional serotype coverage has become clear. Our objective was to assess the potential serotype coverage of PCV7 and of the 2 experimental conjugate vaccines, 10-valent (PCV10) and 13-valent (PCV13), against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), acute otitis media (AOM), acute conjunctivitis (AC), and pneumococcal carriage in southern Israel, where PCV7 had not yet been introduced at the time of the study.

Methods: Data on isolates were obtained prospectively front children <36 months during 2000-2004. The potential coverage of the PCVs was calculated and analyzed separately for antibiotic-resistant strains.

Results: A total of 5497 isolates were collected: 189 from blood or cerebrospinal fluid, 3197 from middle ear fluid, 348 Go 6983 in vivo from the conjunctiva, and 1763 from the

nasopharynx of healthy children. The serotype coverage of PCV7 for IPD, AOM, AC, and carriage was 44%, 54%, 37%, and 46%, respectively. Serotypes included in PCV7 caused 47 IPD cases per 100,000 children <3 years (54 per 100,000 if serotype 6A is included). PCV10 extended mainly the coverage of IPD, while addition of serotypes 6A and 19A to PCV13 increased the coverage substantially in all entities (84%, 79%, 54%, and 67% in IPD, AOM, AC, and carriage, respectively). PCV13 could prevent >90% of penicillin-, macrolide-, and multidrug-resistant strains associated with IPD and AOM.

Conclusions: PCV7 can substantially decrease pneumococcal disease and carriage in Israel, but PCV 10 and PCV 13 have a significant added benefit. Moreover, PCV 13 has an important potential added benefit over PCV7 and PCV10 in reducing disease by drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae.”
“The study in particular relates to a process for modifying surface of polymeric membrane and their biocidal activities.

3 +/- 11 5 years) were included in this study All patients were

3 +/- 11.5 years) were included in this study. All patients were in stable condition with GFR greater than 30 ml/min/1.73 m(2); (MDRD).

Hypertension was defined to be present if there was a recorded diagnosis of hypertension, systolic blood pressure >130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure >80 mmHg according to ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. None of the hypertensive patients were receiving RAS blockers. Spot urine samples were obtained to measure urinary SB203580 chemical structure angiotensinogen (AGT) using human AGT-ELISA, urinary creatinine and protein levels. The demographic properties and laboratory findings were similar between hypertensive and normotensive transplant recipients. Urinary AGT-creatinine ratio (UAGT/UCre) was significantly higher in hypertensive patients compared with the normotensives (8.98 +/- 6.89 mu g/g vs. 5.48 +/- 3.33 mu g/g; P = 0.037). Importantly, a significantly positive correlation was found between UAGT/Ucre levels and proteinuria in hypertensive

patients (P = 0.01, r = 0.405). Local intrarenal RAS probably plays an important role in the development of hypertension and proteinuria in renal transplant recipients.”
“Study Design. Population-based cross-sectional study of clinically assessed low back syndromes.

Objective. To investigate whether exposure to professional car driving, either selleck screening library alone or in combination with strenuous physical work is associated with clinically defined sciatica or other clinically diagnosed chronic low back syndromes.

Summary of Background Data. Several studies have found an association between professional driving and back disorders, but drivers’ histories of heavy physical work tasks has rarely been taken into account.

Methods. The nationally representative sample comprised of 2323 men aged 30 to 64 (the Health 2000 Survey). The diagnoses of sciatica and chronic low back syndromes were based on a standardized clinical examination by specially trained physicians. Life-long exposure

to professional Belnacasan datasheet car driving and to physically demanding work was assessed retrospectively via interviews. Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of clinical chronic low back syndromes related to these exposures, and the risks were presented with odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).

Results. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed sciatica was 5.4% and that of other chronic low back syndromes 4.0%. Professional car driving in general was associated with sciatica at an OR of 1.42 (95% CI 0.92-2.18) and with other chronic low back syndromes at an OR of 1.31 (0.80-2.16), after adjustment of covariates and strenuous physical work. Exposure to driving without exposure to physical work was not associated with the outcomes, whereas driving in combination with strenuous physical work increased the risk for sciatica threefold (3.22; 1.86-5.59), and that of low back syndromes twofold (2.08; 1.12-3.87).


Netobimin reduced the EPG by 100%, 100%, 77%, 80% and 75% 2, 4, 6

Netobimin reduced the EPG by 100%, 100%, 77%, 80% and 75% 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks post-treatment, respectively. The specific behaviour of the two enantiomers probably reflects different enantioselectivity of the enzymatic systems of the liver which are responsible for sulphoxidation and sulphonation of ABZ. Considering the pharmacokinetic and efficacy parameters NTB could be used

as an anthelmintic in horses. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Prematurity at birth is a known risk factor for the development of an early chronic renal disease. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) BMS-754807 is a well established biomarker of kidney injury, while high blood levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are associated with the future development of adverse cardiovascular events and cardiac death.

Aims: (1) to verify the presence of statistically significant differences between urinary NGAL and hematic ADMA levels in young adults born preterm at extremely

low birth weight (<1000 g; ex-ELBW) and those of a control group of healthy adults born at term (C) (2) to seek correlations between NGAL and ADMA levels, which would indicate the presence of AS1842856 Metabolism inhibitor an early cardio-renal involvement in ex-ELBW.

Methods: Twelve ex-ELBW subjects (six males and six female, mean age: 23.9 +/- 3.2 years) were compared with 12 C (six males and six female). Urinary NGAL and hematic ADMA levels were assessed.

Results: Urinary NGAL levels were higher in ex-ELBW subjects compared to C (p<0.05), see more as well as hematic ADMA concentrations (p<0.05). A statistically significant correlation was

found between urinary NGAL and ADMA (r = -0.60, p<0.04).

Conclusions: Our preliminary findings support the hypothesis that in ex-ELBW subjects the development of an early chronic kidney disease contributes towards inducing an increase in the atherosclerotic process and in the risk of future adverse cardiovascular events.”
“This study was conduced to assess the daily rhythm of tear production in clinically healthy dog. For Our study eight female purebred Beagles were subjected to three different Light/Dark schedules: 12/12 L/D, 24/0 L/D and 0/24 L/D cycles. In all subjects Schirmer tear test I was performed at 4 h intervals over a 24 h period. A statistical significant effect of photoperiod was observed comparing the three different L/D schedules, and a statistical significant difference was observed comparing left and right eye during the 12/12 L/D schedule. We demonstrated daily variation of tear production in dogs maintained under an L/D cycle. We also provided strong evidence that the rhythm of tear production is endogenously generated because it persisted in constant darkness.

(Obstet Gynecol 2011;118:1081-9) DOI: 10 1097/AOG 0b013e31823389b

(Obstet Gynecol 2011;118:1081-9) DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31823389bb”
“The aim of this study was to compare the release of bone markers during

osseointegration of immediately loaded and nonloaded implants. Forty patients who were indicated for rehabilitation with dental implants randomly received either implant and prosthesis placement within 72 hours (group IM) or implant insertion and no prosthesis placement (group NL). Peri-implant crevicular fluid was collected immediately after implant insertion and 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days after surgery and levels of osteoprotegerin, transforming growth factors, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and parathyroid hormone were evaluated using Luminex assay. Bleeding index P005091 and peri-implantar sulcus depth were also evaluated. The data were compared using statistical tests ( = 5%). No statistical difference

was found regarding demographic and clinical parameters (p > .05). Transforming growth factors, osteoprotegerin, osteopontin, and parathyroid hormone presented an earlier release peak in group IM than in NL group (p < .05). Osteocalcin achieved higher levels in group IM versus group NL between 7 and 30 days of evaluation (p < .05). It may be concluded that earlier loading positively modulates bone mediators release around immediately loaded implants when compared with nonloaded dental implants ( NCT01909999).”
“Purpose of review

To give an overview of advanced in-vivo imaging GSI-IX chemical structure techniques for assessing bone quality beyond bone mineral density that have considerably advanced in recent years.

Recent findings

Quantitative computed tomography and finite element analysis improve fracture risk prediction at the spine, and help to better

understand the pathophysiology of skeletal diseases and response to therapy by quantifying bone mineral density in different bone compartments, determining bone strength, and assessing bone geometry. With new high-resolution techniques, trabecular structure at the spine, forearm, and tibia, and cortical porosity at the forearm and tibia can be measured. Hip structure analysis and trabecular bone SN-38 purchase score have extended the usefulness of dual X-ray absorptiometry.


New advanced three-dimensional imaging techniques to quantify bone quality are mature and have proven to be complimentary methods to dual X-ray absorptiometry enhancing our understanding of bone metabolism and treatment.”
“OBJECTIVE: To compare the labor room and operating room for perimortem cesarean delivery during simulated maternal arrests occurring outside the operating room. We hypothesized transport to the operating room for perimortem cesarean delivery would delay incision and other important resuscitation milestones.

32 dBi at 2 35 GHz These results imply that the Co(2)Z-glass com

32 dBi at 2.35 GHz. These results imply that the Co(2)Z-glass composite is an underpinning magnetodielectric

material for gigahertz antenna applications. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3563056]“
“Zinc oxide (ZnO) and nano-zinc oxide (nZnO) were surface modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and poly propylene glycol (PPG). Modification of particles were controlled by transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer, Emmett, Teller specific surface area measurement, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. IR spectra were shown that the interactions between surface modifiers and particles are hydrogen Tariquidar price bonding. Modified particles were applied as an activator in vulcanization of natural rubber/styrene butadiene rubber (NR/SBR) blend. Dispersion of modified particles in rubber matrix was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and shown good results. Blend properties were improved by using modified particles. These improvements were due to the better hydrophobicity of modified particles, which were more compatible with nonpolar rubber matrix and caused better participation

in curing process. Modification by PEG and PPG were shown better compound properties for ZnO and nZnO, respectively. Application of ZnO-modified particles were presented better compound properties in comparison with nZnO-modified CCI-779 concentration particles. It has confirmed more effective mixing of ZnO-modified particles in rubber matrix by using ordinary mixers. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 122: 249-256, 2011″
“Inhibins and activins are important regulators of the female reproductive system. Recently, two novel inhibin subunits, named betaC and betaE, have been identified

Fludarabine order and shown to be expressed in several human tissues. However, only limited data on the expression of these novel inhibin subunits in normal human endometrial tissue and endometrial adenocarcinoma cell lines exist.

Samples of proliferative and secretory human endometrium were obtained from five premenopausal, non-pregnant patients undergoing gynecological surgery for benign diseases. Normal endometrial tissue and Ishikawa endometrial adenocarcinoma cell lines were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and RT-PCR.

Expression of the inhibin betaC and betaE subunits could be demonstrated at the protein level by means of immunohistochemical evaluation and at the transcriptional level by establishing a betaC- and betaE-specific RT-PCR analysis in normal human endometrial tissue and the parental Ishikawa cell line. Interestingly, in a highly de-differentiated subclone of the Ishikawa cell line lacking estrogen receptor expression, the expression of the inhibin-betaC subunit appeared strongly reduced.

The enhanced glutamate concentrations returned to control levels,

The enhanced glutamate concentrations returned to control levels, accompanied by a recovery

of glutamate clearance following deprivation. These results indicated that chronic alcohol drinking enhanced extracellular glutamate concentrations in the mesolimbic system, as a result, in part, of reduced clearance, suggesting that enhanced glutamate neurotransmission may contribute to the maintenance of alcohol drinking. However, because the increased glutamate levels returned to normal after deprivation, elevated ATM/ATR inhibitor drugs glutamate neurotransmission may not contribute to the initiation of relapse drinking.”
“Introduction: To determine whether there is a benefit to platelet transfusion in mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) patients with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), taking antiplatelet therapy before hospitalization.

Materials and Methods: The study Bromosporine design retrospectively reviewed patients admitted to a Level I trauma center during a 2-year period with an isolated MTBI (Glasgow Coma Scale score >= 13, ICH seen on a head computed tomographic scan (head computed tomography [HCT]), and taking an antiplatelet

agent before hospitalization. HCT’s were categorized based on the Marshall Classification, Rotterdam Score, and ICH volume. Hospital records were reviewed noting neurologic, cardiac, respiratory events, and discharge Glasgow Outcome Scale.

Results: There were 1,101 patients with TBI hospitalized during the 2-year study period. Three hundred twenty-one of these patients had an MTBI with ICH at the time of admission, and from this group, 113 were taking an antiplatelet agent. Only

4 (1.2%) of the 321 patients suffered a neurologic decline. All were gradual in nature, and none required emergent intervention. An analysis of the 113 patients taking antiplatelet agents, comparing patients who were not given a platelet transfusion with those who received a platelet transfusion, found no significant difference in the rate of HCT progression, Daporinad cell line neurologic decline, or Glasgow Outcome Scale at hospital discharge between the two groups. There was a trend, which was not significant, toward more medical declines in patients who received a platelet transfusion. A further review, analyzing all 321 patients with ICH showed receiving a transfusion of any type (i.e., platelets, fresh frozen plasma, or blood) was a strong predictor of medical decline (p < 0.0001). The odds ratio of having a medical decline after transfusion was 5.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-28.2).

Conclusions: Platelet transfusion did not improve short-term outcomes after MTBI. Further randomized controlled trials need to be done to truly assess if there is no benefit in platelet transfusion in patients taking antiplatelet agents suffering an MTBI. Because the overall outcome in MTBI patients is favorable, platelet transfusion in these patients may not be indicated.

While the periodic pattern clearly reflects well-positioned nucle

While the periodic pattern clearly reflects well-positioned nucleosomes, the positioning mechanism is less clear. A recent experimental study by Mavrich et al. argued that the pattern observed in Rabusertib nmr Saccharomyces cerevisiae is qualitatively consistent with a “”barrier nucleosome model,”" in which the oscillatory pattern is created by the statistical positioning mechanism of Kornberg and Stryer. On the other hand, there is clear evidence for intrinsic sequence preferences of nucleosomes, and it is

unclear to what extent these sequence preferences affect the observed pattern. To test the barrier nucleosome model, we quantitatively analyze yeast nucleosome positioning data both up- and downstream from NFRs. Our analysis is based on the Tonks model of statistical physics which quantifies the interplay between the excluded-volume interaction of nucleosomes and their positional entropy. We find that although the typical patterns on the two sides of the NFR are different, they are both quantitatively described by the same physical model with the same parameters, but different boundary conditions. The inferred boundary

conditions suggest that the first nucleosome downstream from the NFR (the +1 nucleosome) is typically directly positioned while the first nucleosome upstream is statistically positioned via a nucleosome-repelling DNA region. These boundary conditions, which can be locally encoded into the

genome sequence, significantly shape the statistical distribution of nucleosomes over a GDC-973 range of up to,1,000 bp to each side.”
“Giant cell arteriitis (GCA) is the most common of the vasculitis syndromes and, being a disease of the elderly, its incidence is increasing with the general ageing of the population. GCA is most feared WH-4-023 nmr for its early complications, namely blindness and stroke, resulting from inflammation and subsequent occlusion of ocular and extra cranial arteries, respectively. More recently, however, GCA has been recognised to also affect limb arteries and the aorta with a high prevalence. These newly recognised features of GCA pose diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic challenges to treating physicians. Here, recent developments in the field of GCA are summarised and discussed.”
“Background: Abuse of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) poses a public health concern. In previous studies, intravenous (IV) self-administration of GHB doses up to 10 mg/kg was not maintained in non-human primates under limited-access conditions, which was inconsistent with the usual good correspondence between drugs abused by humans and those self-injected by laboratory animals.

Methods: Self-administration of GHB was studied in 10 baboons using procedures standard for our laboratory to assess drug abuse liability. Each self-injection depended on completion of 120 or 160 lever responses.