CrossRef 17 Gong L, Maa M, Xu C, Li X, Wang S, Lin J, Yang Q: Mu

selleck inhibitor CrossRef 17. Gong L, Maa M, Xu C, Li X, Wang S, Lin J, Yang Q: Multicolor upconversion emission of dispersed ultra small cubic Sr 2 LuF 7 nanocrystals synthesized by a solvothermal process. J Lumin 2013, 134:718–723.CrossRef 18. Chen Z, Gong W, Chen T, Li S, Wang D, Wang Q: Preparation and upconversion luminescence of Er 3+ /Yb 3+ codoped Y 2 Ti 2 O 7 nanocrystals. Mater Lett 2012, 68:137–139.CrossRef 19. Xie M, Peng X, Fu X, Zhang J, Li G, Yu X: Synthesis of Yb 3+ /Er 3+ co-doped MnF 2 nanocrystals with bright red up-converted fluorescence. Scripta Mater 2009,60(3):190–193.CrossRef 20. Ye X, Zhuang W, Hu Y, He T, Huang X, Liao C, Zhong S, Xu Z, Nie H, Deng G: Preparation, characterization, and optical properties

of nano- and submicron-sized Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ phosphors. J Appl Phys 2009,105(5):064302–064308.CrossRef CFTRinh-172 mw 21. Medintz IL, Uyeda HT, Goldman ER, Mattoussi H: Quantum dot bioconjugates for imaging, labelling and sensing. Nat Mater 2005,4(6):435–446.CrossRef 22. Vetrone F, Boyer JC, Capobianco JA, Speghini A, Bettinelli M: Significance of Yb3+ concentration on

the upconversion mechanisms in codoped Y 2 O 3 :Er3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals. J Appl Phys 2004,96(1):661–667.CrossRef 23. Lukić SR, Petrović DM, Dramićanin MD, Mitrić M, Djačanin L: Optical and structural properties of Zn 2 SiO 4 :Mn 2+ green phosphor nanoparticles obtained by a polymer-assisted sol–gel method. Scripta Mater 2008,58(8):655–658.CrossRef 24. Andrić Ž, Idelalisib Dramićanin BIBW2992 order MD, Mitrić M, Jokanović V, Bessière A, Viana B: Polymer complex solution synthesis of (Y x Gd 1−x ) 2 O 3 :Eu 3+

nanopowders. Opt Mater 2008,30(7):1023–1027.CrossRef 25. Antić Ž, Krsmanović R, Wojtowicz M, Zych E, Bártová B, Dramićanin MD: Preparation, structural and spectroscopic studies of (Y x Lu 1−x ) 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ nanopowders. Opt Mater 2010,32(12):1612–1617.CrossRef 26. Krsmanović R, Antić Ž, Bártová B, Dramićanin MD: Characterization of rare-earth doped Lu 2 O 3 nanopowders prepared with polymer complex solution synthesis. J Alloy Compd 2010,505(1):224–228.CrossRef 27. Silver J, Martinez-Rubio MI, Ireland TG, Fern GR, Withnall R: The effect of particle morphology and crystallite size on the upconversion luminescence properties of erbium and ytterbium co-doped yttrium oxide phosphors. J Phys Chem B 2001,105(5):948–953.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions VL carried out the material synthesis. PA performed the TEM study. VL and MD carried out the X-ray diffraction and luminescence analysis. MD supervised the research activity. VL and MD wrote the manuscript. All authors discussed and commented on the manuscript. All authors approved the final manuscript.”
“Background ZnO nanowires (NWs) and graphene are two of the most widely studied nanomaterials; both of them are good candidates for the electrode materials of supercapacitors.

Indeed, RB18A/MED1 knockdown in melanoma cells in vitro increased

Indeed, RB18A/MED1 knockdown in melanoma cells in vitro increased their invasive properties, without modification of cell proliferation. Furthermore, RB18A/MED1 knockdown in vivo switched

melanoma phenotype from non- to strongly-tumorigenic in nude mice. Thus, our data demonstrated for the first time that down-expression of RB18A/MED1 in human melanoma cells strongly AZD2014 nmr increases tumor progression by modifications of the tumor microenvironment. Poster No. 10 SNAI1 Expression in Colon Cancer Related with CDH1 and VDR Downregulation in Normal Adjacent Tissue Jose Miguel Garcia 1 , Cristina Peña1, Maria Jesus Larriba2, Vanesa Garcia1, Javier Silva1, Gemma Dominguez1, Rufo Rodriguez3, Antonio Garcia de Herreros4, Jose Ignacio Casal5, Alberto Muñoz2, Felix Bonilla1 1 Deparment of Medical Oncology, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain, 2 Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas “Alberto Sols”, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas-Unoversidad Autonoma

de Madrid, Madrid, Spain, 3 Deparment of pathology, Hospital Virgende la Salud, Toledo, Spain, 4 Unitat de Biologia MX69 in vivo Cellular i Molecular, Institut Municipal D’investigacio ARS-1620 ic50 Medica, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain, 5 Biotechnology Program, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncologicas, Madrid, Spain SNAIL1 (SNAI1), ZEB1, E-cadherin (CDH1) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes regulate the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) that initiates the invasion process of many tumor cells. We hypothesized that this process could also affect the behavior others of normal cells adjacent to the tumor. To verify this hypothesis, the expression level of these genes was determined by quantitative RT-PCR in tumor, normal adjacent and normal distant tissues from 32 colorectal

cancer patients. In addition, we extended the study to human SW480-ADH colon cancer cells co-cultured with derivative cells over-expressing the mouse Snai1 gene. Of 18 CC cases with SNAI1 expression in tumor tissue, 5 also had SNAI1 in normal adjacent tissue. Expression of SNAI1, but not of ZEB1, in tumor tissue correlated with downregulation of CDH1 and VDR genes in both tumor (p = 0.047 and p = 0.014, respectively) and normal adjacent tissue lacking SNAI1 expression (p = 0.054 and p = 0.003). ZEB1 expression was directly related to VDR expression in tumor tissue (r = 0.39; p = 0.027) and inversely to CDH1 in normal adjacent tissue (r = −0.46; p = 0.010). CDH1 was also downregulated in SW480-ADH cells co-cultured with Snai1-expressing cells. Furthermore, proteomic analysis showed differences in the conditioned media obtained from the two cell types.

gingivalis biofilm and how this relates to pathogeniCity In our

gingivalis biofilm and how this relates to pathogeniCity. In our laboratory we have devised a reproducible

continuous culture method to grow biofilm and SB431542 cost planktonic cells simultaneously in the same fermentor vessel. Using this approach we have compared the cell envelope proteome of P. gingivalis W50 biofilm and planktonic cells [15]. In this current study, we have Selleckchem LY3023414 expanded our investigation of these cells, comparing the global gene expression within P. gingivalis biofilm and planktonic cells using microarray analysis. Methods Continuous culture conditions and biofilm formation The growth and physical characterization of the biofilm and planktonic cells analysed in this study have been described in Ang et al. [15]. The continuous culture system allows the simultaneous co-culture of planktonic cells and biofilm cells under identical growth conditions [15]. Briefly, the methods used were as follows. To produce biofilm and planktonic cells for RNA harvest P. gingivalis was grown in continuous culture, in duplicate, using a Bioflo

C646 datasheet 110 fermentor with a total volume of 400 mL (New Brunswick Scientific, Edison, NJ, USA) in BHI medium supplemented with 5 mg mL-1 cysteine hydrochloride and 5.0 μg mL-1 haemin. Growth was initiated by inoculating the fermentor vessel with a 24 hour batch culture (100 mL) of P. gingivalis grown in the same medium. After a 24 h incubation the media reservoir pump was turned on and the media flow adjusted to give a dilution rate of 0.1 h-1(mean generation time of 6.9 h). The temperature of the vessel was maintained at 37°C and the pH at 7.4 ± 0.1. The culture was continuously gassed with 5% CO2 in 95% N2. Optical density readings (OD650 nm) and purity of the culture were analyzed daily. Biofilm could be seen to be forming on the fermentor vessel walls and on glass microscope slides that were fixed to the vessel walls. Each P. gingivalis W50 culture was maintained for 40 days until harvesting. Planktonic cells were harvested by rapidly pumping them out of the fermentor vessel. The microscope slides were then

removed from the fermentor vessel for examination of biofilm thickness and cell viability. The biofilm was rinsed twice with cold PGA buffer [16] to remove contaminating planktonic cells and then removed by scraping with a spatula and suspended in cold PGA 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase buffer in a 50 mL centrifuge tube. PGA buffer contained 10.0 mM NaH2PO4, 10.0 mM KCl, 2.0 mM citric acid, 1.25 mM MgCl2, 20.0 μM CaCl2, 25.0 μM ZnCl2, 50.0 μM MnCl2, 5.0 μM CuCl2, 10.0 μM CoCl2, 5.0 μM H3BO3, 0.1 μM Na2MoO4, 10 mM cysteine-HCl with the pH adjusted to 7.5 with 5 M NaOH. Biofilm characterization The viability of cells comprising the biofilms that were on the glass microscope slides were determined using LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™ stain as per manufacturer instructions (Invitrogen) with visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) essentially as described by Loughlin et al. [17].

Furthermore, in motifs II and III,

Furthermore, in motifs II and III, TbrPPX1 contains the sequence motifs DHN and DHH, respectively, which set it apart from the prune subfamily that contains the motifs DHH and DHR at the respective positions [8]. Characteristically, TbrPPX1 also

lacks the C-terminal extension of about 80 amino acids that is AP24534 purchase present in all vertebrate prunes, but is absent from the invertebrate prune homologues [9] and from the exopolyphosphatases. Figure CP673451 in vivo 1 TbrPPX1 is a predicted exopolyphosphatase that belongs to the subfamily 2 of the DHH superfamily. Dark boxes: motifs I – IV and V – VI of the DHH and the DHHA2 domains, respectively. Amino acid numbering corresponds to the TbrPPX1 sequence. Bold, underlined: active site motifs that discriminate the prune subfamily (DHH and DHR in motifs II and III, respectively) from the exopolyphosphatases/pyrophosphatases (DHN and DHH in motifs II and III, respectively). For a discussion of the functional consequences of his shift of the DHH signature from SGC-CBP30 motif II to motif III see [8]. Blast searching of the genomic databases of T. congolense, T. vivax, T. cruzi, L. major,

L. infantum, L. brasiliensis and L. tarentolae with TbrPPX1 demonstrated the presence of one orthologue of TbrPPX1 (three for T. cruzi) in each genome (Figure 2 and Table 1). The identical set of genes was also retrieved when searching the databases with the S. cerevisiae exopolyphosphatase ScPPX1 [GenBank: AAB68368]. All these TbrPPX1 homologues (group 1) share extensive sequence conservation and consist of about 380 amino acids, with calculated isoelectric points of about 5.5. For several of them, an exopolyphosphatase activity has been experimentally demonstrated [[14, 15], this study]. Figure 2 Neighbour distance tree of amino acid sequences of the kinetoplastid exo-and endopolyphosphatases. Group 1: cytosolic exopolyphosphatases; group: acidocalcisomal inorganic pyrophosphatases; group 3: pyrophosphatases. LY294002 For the designations of the individual genes and proteins see Table 1. Table 1 The exopolyphosphatases/pyrophosphatases of the kinetoplastids Organism GeneDB TrEMBL Gene ID Amino acids

Calc. MW Calc. pI Ref. Group 1 (exopoly-phosphatases)               T. brucei Tb09.160.1950 (TbrPPX1) Q7Z032 3660027 383 42865 5.39 [16], this study T. congolense congo940f01.q1k_0 —   383 43004 5.66   T. cruzi Tc00.1047053504797.10 Q4DJ30 3545900 383 43029 5.95 15   Tc00.1047053511577.110 Q6Y656   383 43121 5.96   T. vivax tviv676c08.p1k_16 —   382 43434 5.68   L. braziliensis LbrM01_V2.0340 A4H355 5412361 387 42862 5.80   L. infantum LinJ01_V3.0310 A4HRF2 5066108 387 42626 5.59   L. major LmjF01.0310 Q25348 800604 388 42595 5.63 [14] L. tarentolae r1596.contig3320-2-1007-2215 —   387 43035 5.74   Group 2 (acidocalcisomal pyrophosphatases)               T. brucei Tb11.02.4910 Q384W5 3665799 414 47330 5.73 [12, 13]   Tb11.02.4930 Q7Z029   414 47307 5.70   T. cruzi Tc00.1047053511165.

albicans, such as adhesion to host surfaces, hyphal formation and

albicans, such as adhesion to host surfaces, hyphal formation and secretion of proteinases [11]. In addition, C. albicans cells employ mechanisms that protect of the fungal cells from the host immune system, including an efficient oxidative stress response [12, 13]. When

immunocompetent individuals are infected by fungi, macrophages and neutrophils generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide that damage cellular components of C. albicans, inclusive of proteins, lipids and DNA. The production of ROS is an important mechanism of host defense against fungal pathogens [13], damaging cells enough to cause cell death of phagocytosed fungal cells [12, 14]. Treatment of fungal infections, especially invasive ones, is considered difficult due to the limited availability of antifungal drugs and by the emergence of drug-resistant strains. The development of new antifungal agents and new therapeutic PKC inhibitor approaches for fungal infections are therefore urgently needed [4, 8, 15]. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an innovative PF-01367338 cost antimicrobial approach that combines a non-toxic dye or photosensitizer (PS) with harmless visible light of the correct wavelength. The activation of the PS by light results in the production of ROS, such as singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals, that are toxic to cells [6, 16]. PDT is a highly selective modality because the

PS uptake occurs mainly in hyperproliferative cells and cell

death is spatially limited to regions where light of the appropriate wavelength is applied. As microbial cells possess very fast growth rates, much like that of malignant cells, PDT has been widely used for microbial cell destruction [17]. Several in vitro studies have shown that PDT can be highly effective in the inactivation of C. albicans and other Candida species. Therefore, antifungal PDT is a subject of increasing interest especially against Candida strains resistant CYTH4 to conventional antifungal agents [16]. Galleria mellonella (the greater wax moth) has been successfully used to study pathogenesis and infection by different fungal species, such as Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus[18]. Recently, our laboratory was the first to describe G. mellonella as an alternative invertebrate model host to study antimicrobial PDT alone or followed by conventional therapeutic antimicrobial treatments [19]. We demonstrated that after infection by Enterococcus faecium, the use of antimicrobial PDT prolonged larval survival. We have also found that aPDT followed by administration of a conventional antibiotic (vancomycin) was significantly effective in prolonging larval Lazertinib in vivo survival even when infected with a vancomycin-resistant E. faecium strain. In this study, we go on to report the use of the invertebrate model G.

Examples for the first group include sodium butyrate, depsipetide

Examples for the first group include sodium butyrate, depsipetide, fenretinide and flavipirodol while the second group includes gossypol, ABT-737, ABT-263, GX15-070 and HA14-1 (reviewed by Kang and Reynold, 2009 [68]). Some of these small molecules belong to yet

another class of drugs called BH3 mimetics, so named because they mimic the binding of the BH3-only proteins to the hydrophobic groove of anti-apoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family. One classical example of a BH3 mimetic is ABT-737, which inhibits anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Bcl-W. It was shown to exhibit cytotoxicity in lymphoma, small cell lung carcinoma cell line and primary patient-derived cells and caused regression of established tumours in animal models with a high percentage of cure [69]. Other see more BH3 mimetics such as ATF4, ATF3 and NOXA have been reported to bind to BLZ945 and inhibit Mcl-1 [70]. 4.1.2 Silencing the anti-apoptotic proteins/genes Rather than using drugs or therapeutic agents to inhibit the anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family, some studies have demonstrated that by silencing genes coding

for the Bcl-2 family of anti-apoptotic proteins, an increase in apoptosis could be achieved. For example, the use of Bcl-2 specific siRNA had been shown to specifically inhibit the expression of target gene in vitro and in vivo with anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects observed in pancreatic carcinoma cells [71]. On SSR128129E the other hand, Wu et al demonstrated that by silencing Bmi-1 in MCF breast cancer cells, the expression of pAkt and Bcl-2 was downregulated, rendering these cells more sensitive to doxorubicin as evidenced by an increase in apoptotic cells in vitro and in vivo [72]. 4.2 Targeting p53 Many p53-based strategies have been investigated for cancer treatment. Generally, these can be classified into three broad categories: 1) gene therapy, 2) drug therapy and 3) immunotherapy. 4.2.1 p53-based gene

therapy The first report of p53 gene therapy in 1996 investigated the use of a wild-type p53 gene containing retroviral vector injected into tumour cells of non-small cell lung carcinoma derived from patients and showed that the use of p53-based gene therapy may be feasible [73]. As the use of the p53 gene alone was not enough to eliminate all tumour cells, later studies have investigated the use of p53 gene therapy concurrently with other anticancer strategies. For example, the introduction of wild-type p53 gene has been shown to sensitise tumour cells of head and neck, colorectal and prostate cancers and glioma to ionising radiation [74]. Although a few studies managed to go as far as phase III clinical trials, no final approval from the FDA has been selleck compound granted so far [75]. Another interesting p53 gene-based strategy was the use of engineered viruses to eliminate p53-deficient cells.

01% and 200 J/m2 respectively (Figure 6) However, the KU70-defic

01% and 200 J/m2 respectively (Figure 6). However, the KU70-see more deficient strain showed no obvious growth defects under normal growth conditions and its cell morphology was indistinguishable from WT. In addition, there were no significant differences in sugar consumption

rate and fatty acid profile between WT and ∆ku70 (Additional file 3). Figure 6 Sensitivity A-1155463 in vitro of WT (top) and KU70 -deficient strain (bottom) to DNA damaging agents. An initial cell suspension of OD600 = 1.0 was serially diluted 10 folds for four times and spotted on YPD agar plates containing 0.01% MMS (v/v, upper panel) or subjected to 200 J/m2UV irradiation (bottom panel). Top panel shows the non-treated control. All plates were incubated at 28°C for 3 days. AZD5363 molecular weight Discussion With more than 60% GC content, the KU70 and KU80 characterized here present the most GC-rich genes in the NHEJ-pathway reported so far. In terms of gene structure, both genes contain much higher density of introns than those of Y. lipolytica (Table 1), which is the best-studied oleaginous yeast to date. Not surprisingly, homologues of C. neoformans, which is under the same Basidiomycota phylum, also have

high density of introns (Table 1). DSB repair can differ in heterochromatic and euchromatic regions of the genome and histone modifying factors play an important role in this process [28, 29]. Recombination frequencies are known to vary in different genes even when assayed with the same technique and in the same genetic background [30]. Impairment of the NHEJ-pathway has proved

to be effective in improving homologous recombination frequency in many eukaryotic hosts. However, the magnitude of improvement appears to vary considerably in different reports. With a homology sequence of approximately 750 bp, the CAR2 deletion frequency was improved 7.2-fold, from 10.5%, in WT to 75.3% in the KU70-deficient mutant in R. toruloides. This is similar to the deletion of TRP1 in Y. lipolytica although substantially higher knockout frequencies have been reported for several genes in other fungi, for example, N. crassa, A. niger and C. neoformans (Additional file 4). Nevertheless, the R. toruloides STE20 gene remained very difficult to knockout even with the ∆ku70e mutant (Table 2). This demonstrates Histamine H2 receptor a positional effect and implies additional factors that regulate gene deletion in R. toruloides. As the STE20 gene is located between the mating type loci RHA2 and RHA3 in R. toruloides[24], it is possible that the gene is within a transcriptionally silenced chromatin as was reported for the mating type genes in a number of other fungi [31, 32]. The low deletion frequency of STE20 suggests a potential role of chromatin structure and/or gene expression level in regulating DNA recombination in R. toruloides. One of the drawbacks of NHEJ-deficient strains is its elevated sensitivity to DNA damage and the possibility of generating unwanted mutations [12].

Sp17 was found in 66% of endometrial cancers (11), and 61%

Sp17 was found in 66% of endometrial cancers (11), and 61% 3-MA mw of cervical cancers [14] in our previous work. As the expression of Sp17 in normal tissue is limited and its function is obscure, it is reasonable to predict that aberrant expression of Sp17 in malignant tumors could be a molecular marker for tumor imaging diagnosis and targeting therapy of the diseases. Molecular imaging methods permit noninvasive detection of cellular and molecular events by using highly specific probes and gene reporters in living animals, some of which can be directly translated to patient studies. A novel optical imaging technique in cancer is the use of near-infrared (NIR) light (700 to 900 nm) to monitor

the site and size of the cancers [15]. The fundamental advantage of imaging in the NIR range is that photon penetration into living tissue is higher because of lower photon absorption and scatter [16]. An additional advantage is that tissue emits limited intrinsic fluorescence (i.e., autofluorescence) in the 700 nm to 900 nm range. Therefore, fluorescence contrast

agents that emit in the NIR range demonstrate a favorable signal-to-background ratio(SBR) when Go6983 used in animal models or for patient care, especially for endoscopy. Optical imaging is a very versatile, sensitive, and powerful tool for molecular imaging in small animals. The near infrared fluorescence dye ICG-Der-02 (indocyanine Green derivative 02) is a derivative of indocyanine green (ICG), which was approved by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) to be used in human subjects. Compared to ICG, the self-synthesized ICG-Der-02 organic dye holds favorable hydrophilicity click here and higher fluorescence quantum yield with excitation and emission peaks at 780 nm and 810 nm,

respectively. ICG-Der-02 offers one carboxyl functional group on the side chain which enables the dye to be covalently conjugated to the biomarker for in vivo optical imaging [17]. In this study, we first demonstrated the overexpression of Sp17 in the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line SMMC-7721 and in xenografts in mice. After synthesis of anti-Sp17-ICG-Der-02, we evaluated the targeting effect of anti-Sp17-ICG-Der-02 on tumors in vivo with a whole-body optical imaging system in animal models. Materials and methods Cell line and monoclonal antibody The human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line SMMC-7721 Wortmannin expresses high levels of Sp17 and was used for in vitro and in vivo experiments, Sp17- HO8910 ovarian cancer cell line used as negative control. The cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium (Invitrogen) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (Hyclone) in a humidified incubator maintained at 37°C with 5% CO2 atmosphere and medium was replaced every 3 days. The anti-human Sp17 monoclonal antibody clone 3C12 was produced in our laboratory as previously described [14].

The genome of P fluorescens WH6 has been sequenced [13] and comp

The genome of P. fluorescens WH6 has been sequenced [13] and compared to other sequenced strains of P. fluorescens[5, 13]. Among sequenced strains of pseudomonads, these selleck screening library comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses indicated that WH6 was most

closely related to SBW25. These two strains appear to represent a distinct CAL-101 manufacturer clade within the lineage that includes P. fluorescens A506 and BG33R [5]. These analyses have shown that 69% of P. fluorescens WH6 genes have an orthologous sequence in SBW25, and they share extensive long-range synteny [13]. Nonetheless, in spite of the overall similarity of the SBW25 genome to that of WH6, SBW25 lacks a gene cluster we have shown to be essential to the biosynthesis of FVG [14]. P. fluorescens SBW25 was first isolated from the leaf surface of a sugar beet plant [15]. Since then it has been used as a model organism for evolutionary and plant colonization studies [16–20]. SBW25 has also been extensively studied for its plant growth-promoting properties and its ability to protect peas from seedling damping-off caused by

the oomycete Pythium ultimatum[21]. The secondary metabolites known to be produced by SBW25 include pyoverdine siderophores [22] and a viscosin-like cyclic lipopeptide [23]. The latter compound exhibits zoosporicidal activity towards a different oomycete, Phytophthora infestans, but its primary role appears to be in biofilm formation and facilitating the surface selleck kinase inhibitor motility of SBW25 [23]. Although the P. fluorescens SBW25 genome does not contain the gene cluster we have found to be essential for FVG production, the overall similarity of the WH6 and SBW25 genomes attracted our interest in the latter strain and in the possibility that SBW25 might also

produce some type of non-proteinogenic amino acid. In the present study, we report that P. fluorescens SBW25 produces and secretes a ninhydrin-reactive compound that selectively inhibits the growth of several bacterial plant pathogens. This compound was purified from P. fluorescens SBW25 culture filtrates and identified as the amino acid L-furanomycin. To our knowledge, this is only the second report Protirelin of furanomycin production by a microbe and the first report of furanomycin production by a pseudomonad. Results Presence of ninhydrin-reactive compounds in P. fluorescens SBW25 culture filtrate As a preliminary test for the production of non-proteinogenic amino acids by P. fluorescens SBW25, and to compare SBW25 culture filtrates with filtrate from WH6, dried culture filtrates of SBW25 and WH6 were extracted with 90% ethanol. Aliquots of the concentrated extracts were fractionated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on cellulose and silica plates. The resulting chromatograms were then stained with ninhydrin (Figure 1). The extract of SBW25 culture filtrate yielded a single, strongly-staining, ninhydrin-reactive band on both cellulose and silica TLC plates.

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