Study design A retrospective review of patients who were treated

Study design. A retrospective review of patients who were treated for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis

of the jaws in the department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery during the period of 2002-2006 was performed. Seven patients, all IPI-145 nmr treated with the low- and medium-potency bisphosphonates clodronate or pamidronate, were selected as having an established bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. Treatment consisted of sequestrectomy with curettage of the defect in combination with intravenous antimicrobial therapy.

Results. In 6 patients, signs and symptoms disappeared during follow-up which varied from 5 to 52 months. One patient had fewer complaints and developed a stable area of denuded bone.

Conclusion. From these data it is concluded that a protocol Selleck Batimastat consisting of thorough surgical debridement of the infected and necrotic tissue, rounding off of the affected bone, and primary closure leaving no dead space, supported by intravenous antimicrobial therapy for 1 week, followed by oral administration for 3 weeks, might lead to predictable good results in cases of low- and medium-potency bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009; 107: e1-e7)”
“Amorphous silicon carbon

nitride (a-SiCN:H) films were synthesized using vapor transport-chemical vapor deposition technique. Poly(dimethylsilane) was used as a single source for both Si and C. NH(3) gas diluted in Ar is used as a source for nitrogen. The composition and bonding states are uniquely characterized with respect to

NH(3)/Ar ratio by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Spectral deconvolution is used to extract the individual components of the FTIR and XPS spectra. For instance, the FTIR spectra show a remarkable drop in the intensity of Si H 89 mw – C vibration accompanied by the formation of further bonds including Si – N, C – N, C = N, C N, and N – H with increasing NH(3)/Ar ratio. Moreover, the XPS spectra show the existence of different chemical bonds in the a-SiCN:H films such as Si – C, Si – N, C – N, C = N, and C = C. Both FTIR and XPS data demonstrate that the chemical bonding in the amorphous matrix is more complicated than a collection of single Si – C Si – N, or Si – H bonds.”
“We examined the variation of the BMP4 gene in four Chinese indigenous cattle breeds and investigated the association of this polymorphism with body measurement traits. Using PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing, a polymorphic microsatellite was detected in the third exon of the bovine BMP4 gene in 459 samples from four Chinese indigenous cattle breeds, Qinchuan, Luxi, Nanyang, and Jiaxian red. The two alleles were named A and B. Allele frequencies of BMP4-A/B in the four breeds were 0.939/0.061, 0.928/0.072, 0.929/0.071, and 0.938/0.062, respectively.

multicoloratus and O trichoides, respectively An initial concen

multicoloratus and O. trichoides, respectively. An initial concentration in the range of 10-120 mg L-1 significantly decreased the growth and efficiency of Pb2+ removal. The maximum sorptive capacity (q (max)) obtained from the Langmuir isotherm for

C. multicoloratus and O. trichoides was 178.57 and 106.38 mg g(-1), respectively. The pseudo-second-order model was found to correlate well with the experimental data. Metal recovery of 70-77 % was obtained with HCl as a desorbing agent. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the participation of hydroxyl, carboxyl and amino groups in the biosorption process. Based on our observations, we suggest that both species appear to be potential viable biosorbents for mildly acidic water contaminated Screening Library molecular weight with Pb2+.”
“Japanese spotted fever (JSF) is severe and can progress to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with a poor prognosis. We considered whether patient factors are related to serious complications. Between August 1999 and March 2009, all patients with JSF and retrievable clinical data (age, gender, length of hospital stay, medication, comorbidities), vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, temperature),

and laboratory test results [blood Proteasome function cell count, liver function, renal function, electrolytes, blood sugar, C-reactive protein (CRP), CRP normalization period, and aspartate aminotransferase normalization period] from the Integrated Intelligent Management System (IIMS)

database, were retrospectively analyzed by logistic regression. There were 51 JSF patients (24 men, 27 women) with a mean age of 63.0 years. Six patients (11.8%) had DIC, but there were no in-hospital deaths. The time between fever onset and initiation of medication was approximately 5 days, but this delay was not Crenolanib Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor associated with disease severity. We identified values correlating with disease severity (p < 0.1) by univariate analysis and then applied logistic regression. We found renal dysfunction [serum creatinine (Cr) a parts per thousand yen1.5 mg/dl] at the time of initial presentation to be predictive of DIC. Cr was also predictive of a prolonged disease course. In patients with JSF, renal function must be carefully monitored when determining clinical management.”
“In gastric cancer patients who have positive results for peritoneal lavage cytology the disease is defined as CY1, and classified as stage IV, and this population has generally suffered a dismal outcome. For this population, we had conducted a phase II trial, with the 2-year survival rate as the primary endpoint, to test the strategy of D2 dissection followed by chemotherapy with single-agent S-1 (1 M tegafur-0.4 M gimestat-1 M otastat potassium). Forty-eight patients were enrolled, of whom 47 were found to have been eligible for analysis. The 2-year survival rate of 46 % exceeded our expectations.

Evaluation of construct validity showed generally acceptable resu

Evaluation of construct validity showed generally acceptable results, although not entirely supporting the suggested dimensionality. Continued psychometric evaluation in a larger sample of children during and after treatment for cancer is recommended.”
“P>Composite tissue allotransplantation represents a new discipline in reconstructive surgery. Over the past 10 years, we have performed six human vascularized allogeneic knee transplantations. All of these grafts have been lost within the first 56 months. A histomorphologic assessment of the latest case resulted in the detection of diffuse concentric fibrous intimal thickening

and occlusion of graft vessels. Findings are comparable with cardiac allograft vasculopathy. The lack of adequate tools for monitoring graft rejection

might have allowed multiple untreated episodes of acute rejection, triggering myointimal proliferation and occlusion of graft vessels. Graft vasculopathy represents an obstacle to long-term vascularized bone and joint allograft survival, and adequate tools for monitoring need to be developed.”
“Purpose: To assess the cross-sectional BTSA1 construct validity of the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3) in lung transplantation.

Methods: Two hundred and thirteen patients (103 pre-transplant and 110 post-transplant) with mean age 53 years old (SD 13) were recruited during a randomized controlled clinical trial at the out-patient clinic in a tertiary institution. At baseline, patients self-completed measures that included the HUI3, EuroQol EQ-5D, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and socio-demographic questionnaire. Six-minute walk test scores and forced expiratory volume in 1 second data were collected from patient’s medical records. A priori hypotheses were formulated by members of the transplant team about the expected degree of association R788 in vitro between the measures. Correlation coefficients of < 0.1 were considered as negligible, 0.1 to < 0.3 as small, 0.3 to < 0.5 as medium, and

>= 0.5 as large.

Results: Of the ninety predictions made, forty three were correct but in 31 the correlation was slightly lower than predicted and in 7 the correlations were much higher than predicted. In 48% of the cases, predicted and observed associations were in agreement. Predictions of associations were off by one category in 42% of the cases; in 10% of the cases the predictions were off by two categories.

Conclusions: This is the first study providing evidence of cross-sectional construct validity of HUI3 in lung transplantation. Results indicate that the HUI3 was able to capture the burden of lung disease before transplantation and that post-transplant patients enjoyed higher health-related quality of life than pre-transplant patients.”
“P>Toxoplasmosis after solid organ transplantation is a complication associated with high morbidity and mortality.

Furthermore, fusion progression was nearly identical Complicatio

Furthermore, fusion progression was nearly identical. Complications at donor sites were seen in 17% of the cases. From the aforementioned

results, it was concluded that local bone graft is as beneficial as autologous iliac bone graft for PLIF at a single level.”
“Objectives. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of an intraoral photostimulable storage phosphor (PSP) plate system and cone-beam computerized tomography scanning (CBCT) for detection of experimentally induced transverse root fractures and to evaluate differences between original images and images enhanced with high-pass filters.

Study design. Sixty-nine extracted human teeth, 34 with root fractures and 35 without, were examined under standardized conditions using an intraoral PSP system (Digora Optime; Soredex). The images were saved in original 8-bit format and in a version sharpened with a high-pass filter. The teeth were examined ATM/ATR inhibitor cancer with CBCT (i-Cat; Imaging Sciences)

in 2 resolutions: 0.125 mm and 0.25 mm voxel size. Original images were saved together with images enhanced with 2 high-pass filters, sharpen and angio-sharpen. Six observers scored the presence of a root fracture in all modalities in random order. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy [(true positives + true negatives)/all scores] were calculated for each modality and each observer. Differences were estimated by analyzing the binary data, assuming additive effects of observer and modality in a generalized linear model.

Results. High-resolution original CBCT images had selleck kinase inhibitor higher sensitivity (P < .05) than lower-resolution images and PSP images (0.125 mm resolution 87%, 0.25 mm resolution 72%, and PSP

74%). Angio-sharpen-filtered images for both CBCT resolutions had higher sensitivities (P < .02) than the original images (0.125 mm resolution: 95% vs. 87%; 0.25 mm resolution: 81% vs. 72%). There was no significant difference between the lower-resolution CBCT and PSP images. Only small differences in specificity were seen between modalities, and accuracy was higher for high-resolution CBCT than for the other modalities (P < .03).

Conclusions. High-resolution i-Cat CBCT images resulted in an increase MLN4924 in sensitivity without jeopardizing specificity for detection of transverse root fractures compared with lower-resolution CBCT images, which were not more accurate than periapical PSP images. The angio-sharpen high-pass filter improved sensitivity in the high-resolution CBCT images in this in vitro model. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009; 108: 939-945)”
“Objective: The aim of this report was to validate fluoroscopic heart silhouette characteristics associated with cardiac tamponade as a diagnostic method, and evaluate the safety and effectiveness of fluoroscopy-guided pericardiocentesis during catheter ablation.

This passive “”optical”" structure allows either the generation o

This passive “”optical”" structure allows either the generation of a subwavelength confinement of the longitudinal electric field (polarized along the wire antenna) or, due to reciprocity, the collection of the longitudinal component of the electric field (along the wire antenna) with subwavelength resolution. The emission and collection properties of the proposed antenna have been demonstrated experimentally using a preliminary realization

designed to work at 0.1 THz. Experimental results are well supported by calculations. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3236665]“
“This study aims to analyze comparatively the efficacy and safety of synthetic transobturatory and aponeurotic retropubic slings, in the treatment of selleckchem stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women.

Patients were separated in a randomized way. Twenty-one patients were submitted to the operatory correction by the transobturatory sling technique, whereas 20 patients were operated by the retropubic sling technique. All patients were submitted to complete physical exam and urodynamic test. The “”T”" test and the Mann-Whitney U test were applied to establish comparisons between the two groups. Patients were followed-up Selleck PFTα for 12 months.

Healing rate was 90.5% (19/21) and 95% (19/20), respectively after 12 months. The transobturatory group presented lesser complications rate

than the retropubic group.

The transobturatory and the aponeurotic slings techniques were equally effective for the treatment of SUI. The transobturatory sling has shown fewer complications and lesser surgical time than the aponeurotic sling technique.”
“The levator ani muscle is generally thought to play a role in urinary continence, with incontinence assumed to be due to abnormal muscle function or morphology. This study examined whether avulsion of the puborectalis muscle is associated with symptoms or signs of bladder dysfunction.


a retrospective observational study, we reviewed the records of 425 women who had attended a urogynecological unit for independent flowmetry, multichannel urodynamic testing, and 4D pelvic floor ultrasound.

Mean age was 55 years (range, 17-87 years). Of 420 women with complete datasets, 104 (25%) were diagnosed with a puborectalis muscle avulsion. Z IETD FMK These women were less likely to suffer from stress urinary incontinence (SUI; P < 0.001) and urodynamic stress incontinence (USI; P = 0.065) and more likely to present with symptoms of prolapse (P < 0.001) and show signs of voiding dysfunction (P = 0.005). The negative association between avulsion and SUI persisted in multivariate models.

Puborectalis muscle trauma is not associated with an increased risk of SUI or USI in a urogynecological population, even when controlling for symptoms or signs of prolapse and previous surgery.”
“BaSnF4 fluoride ion conductor has been prepared by mechanochemical milling technique at room temperature.

The relationship of education, smoking habit, physical activity,

The relationship of education, smoking habit, physical activity, strength and mobility measures to psychological characteristics was different in the three groups of elders. LOT-R, MHLC Powerful Others, MHLC Chance and GSES were the most important QOL correlates in veteran home group, while MHLC Internal was most significant LBH589 solubility dmso in long-term care home inhabitants.

Data of this cross-sectional

study suggests that the veteran home elderly, as a group ‘in transition’ between community and institution, should be the first target of psychological preventive and health-promoting measures aimed at improving QOL in older population.”
“Pentachlorophenol (PCP) has been widely used for killing snails in areas of China where schistosomiasis is epidemic. With the re-emergence of schistosomiasis, the warranted production and consumption of PCP has inevitably resulted in persistent find more environmental contamination by it and its impurities, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). This study aimed to evaluate the contamination status and human burden of PCP and its impurities (PCDD/Fs) in China, considering the previous epidemic and re-emergence of schistosomiasis. We searched studies relevant

to PCP occurrence in the environment and in humans in China. Data on XMU-MP-1 snail elimination areas were included to estimate PCP consumption. Relevant publications were analyzed to distinguish PCDD/Fs contamination from PCP usage. PCP contamination was detected ubiquitously in various environmental media and in human samples; environmental levels were generally low, with the exception of some hot spots. In schistosomiasis-epidemic areas, there were significantly higher PCP levels in the environment and in

humans than in control areas. Spatial disparities indicated the consistency between serious schistosomiasis epidemic areas and hot spots of PCP contamination. The data suggest an increased trend in PCP contamination of the environment. Specific PCDD/Fs contamination from PCP usage existed even at low environmental levels. The occurrence of PCP in the environment and in humans positively correlated with the epidemic of schistosomiasis. Thyroid-disrupting effects and cancer risk caused by PCP and PCDD/Fs even at low environmental levels in China’s schistosomiasis-epidemic areas are of concern. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“AimTo study thyroid function profile, atherogenic markers and their association in young women with PCOS.

MethodsThirty women aged 15-30 years with PCOS (married and unmarried) and an equal number of age-matched controls were included in this study.

01, P < 0 05, P < 0 05, respectively, and insignificant ass

01, P < 0.05, P < 0.05, respectively, and insignificant association between uterine cavity volume with an increased time period postpartum.

In this study, routine ultrasound evaluation of the uterus in the postpartum period with regular application of uterotonics decreased the rate of surgical interventions. We strongly advise the introduction of postpartum uterine scanning into obstetrical practice, most suitably provided around day 3 after delivery.”

impact of a variation of anisotropy constants on the resulting coercivity and exchange bias has been analyzed modeling the total energy density in thin layered ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic in-plane systems. For a broad range of fourfold, uniaxial, and unidirectional anisotropies, our results illustrate that the exchange bias can grow significantly for a sample rotation off the cooling field direction, while for other combinations Baf-A1 order of anisotropies, a positive exchange bias can be found

near or even in the cooling field direction. These findings allow identification of anisotropies based on superconducting quantum interference device or magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements as well as tailoring desired angular dependencies for magnetoelectronic applications. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3575170]“
“This work aims to develop halogen-free poly(1,4-butylene terephthalate) (PBT) composites with enhanced flame retardancy using ecofriendly flame retardants, aluminum hypophosphite (AHP) and melamine derivatives (melamine polyphosphate and melamine cyanurate). Microscale combustion calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analysis/infrared spectrometry (TG-IR) technique were used to investigate the potential fire hazards of these PBT composites. For the PBT

composites with the incorporation of AHP and melamine derivatives, the heat release capacity (HRC) which is an indicator of a material fire hazard was significantly reduced, and the intensities of a variety of combustible this website or toxic gases detected by TG-IR technique were remarkably decreased. Moreover, a loading of 20 wt % flame retardant mixture fulfilled the PBT composites high limited oxygen index (LOI) and V-0 classification in UL 94 testing. An intumescent flame retarded mechanism was speculated in this work, because numerous bubble-like char residues were found on the surface of the samples containing flame retardant mixture after LOI testing. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 122: 1480-1488, 2011″
“The purpose of this document is to review the non-barrier methods to prevent postoperative adhesion formation in humans.

A MEDLINE computer search was performed to identify relevant articles using the keywords “”postoperative adhesion prevention”" “”abdominal”" and “”humans”". Subsequent searches were performed using the keyword “”non-barrier”" to further supplement the information obtained. After careful review of the abstracts, 15 articles were selected for inclusion in the manuscript.

Materials and Methods

A total of 110 stage I-II TET pa

Materials and Methods

A total of 110 stage I-II TET patients following complete resection were included in this study. Postoperative radiation therapy was recommended for those with aggressive histologic type and/or invasive features according to the surgeons’ judgment during the operation. A median dose of 54.0 Gy (range,

44 to 60 Gy) focused on the primary tumor bed Torin 1 was administered to 57 patients (51.8%).


In all patients, the rates of overall survival, disease-specific survival, and disease-free survival at 10 years were 91.7%, 97.1%, and 95.8%, respectively. No significant differences in disease-specific survival (100% in the S group and 93.5% in the SRT group at 10 years, p=0.12) and disease-free survival (98.1% in the S group and 94.5% in the SRT group at 10 years, p=0.41) were observed between the treatment groups, although a significantly larger number of World Health Organization (WHO)-type B2-C (p<0.001) and

Masaoka stage II (p=0.03) tumors were observed in the SRT group than in the S group. No local recurrence was observed in the SRT group. No grade 2 or greater RT-related toxicities were observed in the SRT PF-03084014 cell line group.


Excellent outcomes were achieved in patients with stage I-II TET who underwent complete resection. Considering excellent local control and low morbidity, adjuvant RT may be considered in high risk patients with WHO-type B2-C histology and Masaoka stage II.”
“SETTING: The Netherlands.

OBJECTIVE: To describe our experiences with the adjunctive role and benefits of surgery for lung disease due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), specifically addressing its indications and timing.

DESIGN: Retrospective medical file review of eight patients who underwent surgical treatment for NTM lung disease in the period January 2000 to January 2009, and review of the available literature.

RESULTS: Therapy-resistant cavitary NTM disease was the most frequent indication for surgery; two patients underwent pneumonectomy for an infected destroyed

lung. Mycobacterium avium was the most common causative agent. Surgery resulted in culture conversion in seven patients; one patient died 2 months after pneumonectomy. No relapses have been noted in the other seven after an average of S63845 chemical structure 19 months of follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS: Adjunctive surgical treatment for NTM lung disease yields encouraging results, similar to previously published case series. Careful patient selection, based on extent and type of disease as well as on cardiopulmonary fitness, is important. Potential benefits of surgery should be considered for every individual patient in whom NTM lung disease is diagnosed and re-evaluated after 6 months of treatment. Where possible, surgery should be pursued and conducted in a timely fashion.”

The pattern of double primary cancers after treatment for gastric cancer is important for a patient’s survival.

180x 1 0 819; R = 0 80; P = 0003) In this series, 2 patients (1

180x 1 0.819; R = 0.80; P = .0003). In this series, 2 patients (13.3%) suffered symptomatic hyperperfusion after revascularization and accordingly exhibited increased AR of ASL. Our data indicate that early increases in rCBF in patients with hyperperfusion could be detected

using FAIR ASL supplemental to I-123-IMP SPECT after revascularization. Our data indicate that FAIR ASL is a convenient method for evaluating hyperperfusion that can be performed repeatedly without the use of contrast medium or radioisotopes.”
“Electrophilic substitution reactions (formylation and acylation) in the series of 2-[2-(2-furyl)vinyl]- and 2-[2-(2-thienyl)vinyl]benzothiazoles AZD8186 cost leads to the corresponding derivatives at the alpha-position of the furan or thiophene ring. The presence

of a vinylene bridge weakens deshielding effect of the benzothiazole fragment on pi-excessive heterocycles, so that such compounds react at a higher rate and under milder conditions as compared to hetarylbenzothiazoles JQEZ5 order having no vinylene bridge.”
“Biliary injury is a severe complication of cholecystectomy. The Hepp-Couinaud reconstruction with the hepatic duct confluence and the left duct may offer best long-term outcome as long as the confluence remains intact (Bismuth I-III). Complex liver surgery is usually indicated in most proximal (Bismuth IV) injuries in non-cirrhotic patients. The aim

of this study was to evaluate the surgical treatment and outcome of bile duct injuries managed in a referral hepatobiliary unit.

We retrospectively analyzed surgical management and outcome of biliary injuries following cholecystectomy in 35 patients (27 laparoscopic) referred to our center between June 2001 and December 2009. There was no liver cirrhosis diagnosed in any patient. High injuries (Bismuth III-IV) were found in 14 patients. Management after referral included the Hepp-Couinaud hepaticojejunostomy in 32 patients with Bismuth I-III injuries, which in four cases with biliary peritonitis was preceded by abdominal lavage and prolonged external biliary drainage. Liver transplantation Sapitinib in vitro was performed in two patients with Bismuth IV injuries.

After median follow-up of 59 months (range, 6-102), 34 (97%) patients are alive and 32 (92%) remain in good general condition with normal liver function. One patient who had combined biliary and colonic injury died of sepsis before repair. Recurrent strictures following the Hepp-Couinaud repair developed in two (6%) patients with high injuries combined with right hepatic arterial injury.

The Hepp-Couinaud hepaticojejunostomy offers durable results, even after previous interventions have failed. In case of diffuse biliary peritonitis, delayed biliary reconstruction following external biliary drainage may be the best option.

Results: I-GPM treated kidneys showed significant reversal of mor

Results: I-GPM treated kidneys showed significant reversal of morphologic changes and a significant reduction in specific ischemic markers lipocalin-2, galectin-3, GRP-78, and HMGB1 compared with ischemic controls. These experiments also showed an upregulation of the stress response protein, heat shock protein (HSP)-70, as well as the phosphorylated active form of the transcription factor, heat shock factor (HSF)-1. In addition, quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed a robust upregulation of several antioxidant Omipalisib supplier pathway response genes in I-GPM treated animals.

Conclusions: By histopathologic and several molecular measures, our unique renoprotective

cocktail mitigated ischemia-reperfusion injury. Our cocktail minimized oxidative stress in an ischemic kidney rat model while at the same time protecting the global parenchymal function during extended periods of ischemia.”
“Introduction: Numerous studies employing various animal models have found that perinatal stress, encountered in utero during sensitive developmental stages or shortly after birth, disrupts both sexual differentiation and sexual behavior in offspring. The biochemical, cellular, genetic and epigenetic events which are involved in the organismal response to perinatal stress are currently under investigation. Methods,

Results and Discussion: In this review, the reader is introduced to perinatal stressors as a toxicological phenomenon,

and several recently characterized epigenetic responses to said stressors are discussed. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“To date, PLX3397 research buy we have little knowledge on the overall metabolic status of neonates with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). In the last few years, the analysis of metabolomics has assumed an important clinical role in identifying “”disorders”" in the metabolic profile of patients. The aim of this work has been to analyze the urine metabolic profiles of neonates with IUGR and compare them with controls to define the metabolic patterns associated with this pathology. To our knowledge, this is the first study of metabolomics performed on neonates with IUGR. Recruited for the study were 26 neonates with IUGR diagnosed in the neonatal period and with weight at birth below the 10th percentile and EPZ-6438 order 30 neonates of proper gestational weight at birth (controls). In the first 24 hours (prior to feeding) (T1) and about 4 days after birth (T2), a urine sample was taken non-invasively from each neonate. The samples were then frozen at -80 degrees C up to the time of the analysis by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR). The data contained in the NMR spectra obtained from the single samples were statistically analyzed using the Principal Components Analysis and the Partial Least Squares-Discriminate Analysis.