Cancer Res 1985, 45:2632–2641 PubMed 30 Gonzales M, Weksler B, T

Cancer Res 1985, 45:2632–2641.PubMed 30. Gonzales M, Weksler B, Tsuruta D: Structure and function of a vimentin-associated matrix adhesion in endothelial cells. Mol Biol Cell 2001, 12:85–100.PubMed 31. Hynes RO: Integrins: bidirectional, allosteric

signaling machines. Cell 2002, 110:673–687.PubMedCrossRef 32. Wu Y, Zhou BP: New insights of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer metastasis. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 2008, 40:643–50.CrossRef 33. Dissanayake SK, Wade M, Johnson CE: The Wnt5A/Selleck MI-503 protein Selleckchem Nutlin-3 kinase C pathway mediates motility in melanoma cells via the inhibition of metastasis suppressors and initiation of an epithelial to mesenchymal transition. J Biol Chem 2007, 282:17259–17234.PubMedCrossRef 34. Alonso Seliciclib chemical structure SR, Tracey L, Ortiz P: A high-throughput study in melanoma identifies epithelial-mesenchymal transition as a major determinant of metastasis. Cancer Res 2007, 67:3450–3460.PubMedCrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions BGZ, ML and XW carried out experimental procedures and drafted manuscript.

TS, XCB and ZYL participated in its design and carried out the molecular experiments. XLZ revised it critically. BCS guaranted the whole study. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Cancer is a disease in which a group of cells in the body displays uncontrolled proliferation, invasion, and sometimes metastasis. Malignant cancers are known by their ability to escape from their original location and metastasize to the lymph nodes or other organs. Metastases are the main cause of cancer mortality; therefore diagnoses

of metastatic cancer are critical for making therapeutic decisions. not Non-metastatic tumors are usually treatable by surgical resection. For patients with cancer that has spread or metastasized, radiation, chemotherapy, or a combination of chemotherapy and radiation can be offered as treatment. Diagnosing cancer metastasis by assaying the level of serological markers of patients is relatively non-invasive. Serum markers that can detect cancer metastasis should be highly useful for screening, diagnosis, prognosis, assessment of therapeutic responses, and monitoring for recurrence of cancer and thus can provide information for taking medical practice to new levels of precision [1, 2]. CSE1L/CAS, the cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein, was identified in a studying of an antisense cDNA fragment that is capable of causing MCF-7 human breast cancer cells resistant to apoptosis induced by bacterial toxins such as Pseudomonas exotoxin, diphtheria toxin, and tumor necrosis factor [3]. CSE1L is the human homologue of the yeast chromosome segregation gene, CSE1, and it encodes a 971-amino acid protein with an approximately 100-kDa molecular masses distributing in the cytoplasm and nuclei of cells [4].

c-KIT was enriched from whole cell lysates

c-KIT was enriched from whole cell lysates DNA Damage inhibitor by overnight incubation at 4°C with 1 μg mAb against c-KIT (104D2, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA), followed by immunoprecipitation with 50 μl Protein A Sepharose for 1 hr at room temperature, and three washes in buffer A. Proteins were eluted by boiling in NuPAGE LDS Sample buffer (Invitrogen),

separated by SDS-PAGE, and analyzed by Western blot using either c-KIT (104D2) or phosphorylated Tyr (PY20, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, CA) primary antibodies at 1:1,000 dilution. Blots were developed using rabbit anti-mouse antibody coupled to HRP at 1:10,000 dilution and the ECL detection system (Amersham/GE Healthcare, Piscataway, NJ). Densitometry of individual bands was quantified using the ChemiDoc XRS system (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA). The 60 kDa fraction of IgG was used as an internal loading control, and the percentage of phosphorylated c-KIT was CUDC-907 calculated based on the normalized data for both total and tyrosine phosphorylated c-KIT. RelA/p65 activation assays THP-1 cells were incubated in media, with or without 1 μM OSI-930, for 5 h and then infected with Y. enterocolitica for 45 min at MOI 40. Cells were pelleted

and GDC0068 incubated in hypotonic lysis buffer NB (10 mM Tris, pH 7.9, 1.5 mM MgCl2, 10 mM KCl, 0.5 mM DTT, 0.5% NP-40, 10 mg/ml leupeptin, 10 mg/ml aprotinin, and 1 mM PMSF) for 15 min on ice. Cell nuclei were purified by centrifugation on 30% sucrose in NB buffer at 800 g for 10 min and resuspended in PBS/3.7% formaldehyde. Fixed cell nuclei were blocked in PBS/10% goat serum/1% BSA/0.1% Triton for 1h, incubated with 1:300 dilution of mouse anti-phospho-NFκB p65 (A-8, Santa Cruz Biotechnology) for 3 h, followed

by 1 h incubation in 1:500 dilution of goat anti-mouse IgG conjugated to Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) FITC (Abcam, Cambridge, MA), all at room temperature. After five washes in blocking buffer, the nuclei population was analyzed on a FACS CaliburII (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ) using a blue laser (488 nm) and 530/30 emission channel with CellQuest Pro software. Flow cytometry analysis of c-KIT levels on cell membranes Formaldehyde (3.7%)-fixed NHDCs were rinsed with PBS containing 50 mM NH4Cl for 15 min. Cells were blocked with pre-immune heterologous serum (1:10 diluted in PBS) for 30 min, washed with PBS and incubated with primary phycoerythrin (PE)-conjugated c-KIT (Ab81, sc-13508PE, Santa Cruz Biotech, CA) for 4 h. The cell populations were acquired using a BD FACS CaliburII instrument with the blue laser (488 nm) and 585/42 emission channel and were analyzed using BD CellQuest Pro software. Statistical analysis Paired two-tailed Student’s t-test was used to calculate p-values, where ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Mass spectrometry generated a list of 105 C burnetii proteins in

Mass spectrometry generated a list of 105 C. DZNeP burnetii proteins in ACCM culture supernatants. Immunoblotting

of culture supernatants following growth of C. burnetii transformants expressing individual epitope-tagged versions of identified proteins confirmed secretion of 27 of these proteins. Secretion of epitope-tagged proteins also occurred during growth of C. burnetii in Vero host cells. An intact N-terminal signal sequence was required for secretion, indicating secreted proteins have a transient periplasmic location. Results Coxiella burnetii proteins are present in growth medium supernatant The Dot/Icm type IVB secretion system AZD5582 price of C. burnetii has been extensively studied [9, 10, 39]. However, little is known about other secretion systems of C. burnetii that are presumably important for intracellular parasitism. To determine if C. burnetii secretes proteins during axenic growth, bacteria were cultivated in ACCM-2 without neopeptone to eliminate media proteins. Following 7 days of growth, supernatant was concentrated and analyzed

by SDS-PAGE and silver staining (Figure 1). Many proteins were detected, with the majority learn more having a molecular weight below 20 kDa. In a discovery experiment to generate a list of potentially secreted proteins to further investigate, SDS-PAGE was conducted again and proteins stained with Coomassie G-250 to allow analysis by microcapillary reverse-phase HPLC nano-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (μLC/MS/MS). A list of 105 proteins was generated (Additional files 1 and 2) with functions assigned based on the annotated genome of the C. burnetii Nine Mile RSA493 reference strain [18]. Sixteen proteins were annotated as hypothetical exported proteins, which represents 36% of the total proteins with this annotation in the predicted C. burnetii proteome [18]. Twenty-nine proteins,

such as translation initiation factor 1 (InfA) and ribosomal protein subunit L31P (RpmE), were predicted as cytoplasmic using the PSORTb v3.0.2 bacterial protein subcellular localization prediction program [40]. This result could be explained by a small amount of bacterial lysis releasing abundant cytoplasmic proteins that are then detected by highly sensitive mass spectrometry. The only Dot/Icm type IVB secretion mafosfamide system substrate detected was CBU0937 [39]. However, type IVB-dependent secretion of CBU0937 was demonstrated using L. pneumophila as a surrogate host, and the protein contains a predicted signal sequence, which are typically not associated with Dot/Icm type IVB effectors [41]. Thus, CBU0937 may represent a false positive type IVB effector. Nonetheless, the lack of identified C. burnetii Dot/Icm type IVB secretion system substrates in culture supernatants indicates secretion via this mechanism requires host cell-derived signals. Figure 1 Multiple Coxiella burnetii proteins are present in growth medium supernatant. C.

fumigatus β-tubulin F TGACGGGTGATTGGGATCTC 198 bp     R CGTCCGCTT

fumigatus β-tubulin F TGACGGGTGATTGGGATCTC 198 bp     R CGTCCGCTTCTTCCTTGTTT     Rodlet A F ACATTGACGAGGGCATCCTT 313 bp     R ATGAGGGAACCGCTCTGATG   Figure 1 Electrophoretic profile of several species of section

Fumigati. F1 – Aspergillus fumigatiaffinis, F2 – Aspergillus lentulus, F3 – Aspergillus novofumigatus, F4 – Aspergillus unilateralis, F5 – Neosartorya hiratsukae, F6 – Neosartorya pseudofischeri, F7 – Neosartorya udagawae; AF1, AF2 and AF3 – Aspergillus fumigatus see more strains. Rapid identification of Aspergillus fumigatus Multiplex PCR was successfully conducted in all fungal Epoxomicin strains included in the study. The specificity of the primers at 69°C was confirmed by the results obtained with singleplex PCR and amplification of each gene fragment in A. fumigatus: partial sequences of 153 and 198 bp for βtub, and 105 and 313 bp for rodA. The electrophoretic profile with MK-2206 order four bands (105, 153, 198 and 313 bp) was similar in all 35 tested strains of A. fumigatus. Non-fumigatus isolates of section Fumigati,

specifically A. fumigatiaffinis, A. lentulus, A. novofumigatus, A. unilateralis, N. hiratsukae, and N. pseudofischeri, produced two discrete bands (105 and 153 bp) corresponding to the conserved region of the section Fumigati for which the primers were designed (as showed in Figure 1). Neosartorya udagawae was an exception and formed a third band (with 313 bp) in a location that was similar to the amplification of A. fumigatus.

Carnitine dehydrogenase Amplicon sizes were confirmed using automated electrophoresis with the primers stained with 6-FAM. Therefore, the present multiplex PCR targeting βtub and rodA gene fragments resulted in a distinct band pattern in A. fumigatus compared to the band pattern obtained for the other species of section Fumigati. In addition, a clear differentiation of N. udagawae was also observed. The electrophoretic profile of the Aspergillus species of other taxonomic sections was distinct from the profile observed for A. fumigatus and was rarely similar to the profile obtained for species included in section Fumigati (two bands of 105 and 153 bp). Identification of species within the section Fumigati The polymorphisms found in the small gene fragments of βtub (153 bp) and rodA (103 bp) were compared among and between species of section Fumigati. A group of 425 partial sequences of βtub and rodA from fungal species of section Fumigati available at GenBank and EMBL-Bank were downloaded (annotation numbers are available as supplemental data; see additional file 1). A detailed alignment of βtub and rodA sequences of the species included in section Fumigati is available in Figures 2 and 3. The most relevant and exclusive polymorphic sites for each species within the section Fumigati were registered. The 153 bp region of βtub was able to differentiate 13 fungal species of section Fumigati (A. fumigatus, A. fumigatiaffinis, A. novofumigatus, N.

Table 5 Descriptions on the selection of

Table 5 Descriptions on the selection of contrast media in CIN guidelines ACC(F) American College of Cardiology (Foundation), AHA American Heart Association, CIN contrast-induced nephropathy, selleck chemical ESUR European Society of Urogenital Radiology, SCAI Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions High-osmolar contrast media have been used for a long period of time, and have caused adverse reactions due to their high osmolality. As low-osmolar contrast media became available in the 1980s and iso-osmolar contrast media were introduced thereafter, the incidence of adverse reactions to contrast media has decreased. In Japan, the

intravascular use of ionic high-osmolar contrast media has not been covered by the NHI since February 2001. Although the incidence of CIN has decreased as the use of low-osmolar contrast media has become common, CIN is still a major adverse reaction to contrast media. Considerable interest has been focused on the difference in incidence of CIN among currently available low- and iso-osmolar contrast media. The osmolarity of contrast media, when compared in iodine equivalent concentrations, is highest in high-osmolar contrast media followed by low-osmolar contrast

media and iso-osmolar contrast media. It also should be noted that the osmotic pressure ratio of low-osmolar contrast media to physiological saline ranges from 2–4, which is a higher ratio than that of iso-osmolar contrast media (1.0). Is the risk for developing CIN higher in patients receiving contrast media via invasive (intra-arterial) administration than in those receiving contrast media via non-invasive this website (intravenous) administration? Answer: Although there is no evidence

demonstrating that intra-arterial administration of contrast media is an independent risk factor for developing CIN, the incidence of CIN tends to be higher in patients receiving contrast media intra-arterially than in those receiving them intravenously. The STAT inhibitor majority of studies on CIN have been conducted in patients receiving contract media intra-arterially, and only a few studies have investigated a possible difference in the incidence of CIN by route of administration. The incidence of CIN tends to be lower in patients receiving contrast Acyl CoA dehydrogenase media intravenously than in those receiving them intra-arterially (Table 6) [62–64], although this difference might be explained by other factors such as catheter techniques. In a review of 7 prospective observational studies, the overall incidence of CIN was 5.4 % in patients with CKD who intravenously received low- or iso-osmolar contrast media, which suggested that intravenous administration of contrast media may pose a smaller risk of CIN as compared with that seen with intra-arterial administration [42]. Table 7 lists the incidence of CIN in patients with CKD after receiving different contrast media [5, 65–70]. Table 8 summarizes currently available iodinated contrast media and their osmolar pressure [71, 72].

Actually, article 9 of the CBD requires signatory parties to “Ado

Actually, article 9 of the CBD requires signatory parties to “Adopt measures for the ex situ conservation of components of biological diversity, preferably in the country of origin of such components” (Glowka et al. 1994). As a signatory of the CBD, the eFT-508 molecular weight European union encourages ex situ activities for native, strictly protected species listed in Annexes IV and V of the habitat directive, and produced an EC zoos directive (22/1999) to oblige zoos and aquaria to adopt a relevant conservation role, consistent with the CBD’s requirements (Rees 2005). It appears that while a number of EU-financed LIFE projects included “captive breeding” among their activities, the active participation

of the zoo and aquarium community to A-769662 manufacturer European biodiversity conservation has been so far negligible on the whole, although notable exceptions exist as in the case of the European mink Mustela lutreola and the bearded vulture Gypaetus barbatus breeding programmes (Anderegg SAHA HDAC solubility dmso et al. 1984; Maran et al. 2009). As a result there is the paradoxical situation of several breeding (and restocking) programmes, often of popular and charismatic species, managed completely outside the zoo world. Examples only from Italy include Apennine chamois Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata, Apennine hare, Lepus corsicanus, otter Lutra lutra, Egyptian vulture Neophron

percnopterus (Gippoliti 2004) and so on. European zoos and global biodiversity However, the main issue raised by this paper concerns the contribution to global biodiversity conservation by European zoos. To our knowledge, no concern has been previously Olopatadine manifested and discussed for the ‘parochial’ approach posed by ex situ activities as recognised in the CBD, that undoubtedly seems to overlook the importance of non-native taxon populations in European zoos and elsewhere, as is also noted, but not discussed, by Stanley-Price (2005).

This issue is of critical relevance for many European institutions, which have a tradition of long-term commitments to biodiversity conservation in non-European countries. Examples of exotic species, owing their survival to ex situ programmes outside their natural range, are continuously growing (Arabian oryx Oryx leucoryx, scimitar-horned oryx Oryx dammah, Kihansi spray toad Nectophrynoides asperginus). Several European zoos have long-established relationships with foreign countries and serve a key role in those countries’ national conservation strategies (Peter and Adler 1995; Hatchwell and Rübel 2007). In the last decade, the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA, with more than 300 members totalling about 130 million visitors annually) launched several conservation campaigns and financed field projects, mostly of global relevance.

Deletion E (174 bp) was previously described by Baum at al in a

Deletion E (174 bp) was previously described by Baum at al. in a clinical S. aureus strain [14]. Deletion G (63 bp) is a novel

deletion always paired with insertion B (63 bp) (Figure 3). Non-typeable samples with persistent mixed sequence traces revealed the presence of the insertion C2 (174 bp) (Figure 3). This insertion contains additional binding sites for the spaT3-F and original spa-forward primer, producing two PCR Akt inhibitor products and distinct double peaks in sequence traces when sequenced with the original spa-forward primer. Sequencing from the reverse primer (1517R) produced clean sequence traces without double peaks. Surprisingly, in some samples that did not amplify with the standard primer set we found rearrangements represented by deletion A (357 bp) and deletion D/insertion A (174 bp/10 bp) that do not affect the position of the standard forward primer. To investigate the selleck screening library presence of deletions

that do not affect spa-typing and therefore can remain unnoticed, we sequenced the whole spa-gene from 32 community carriage and 67 bacteraemia isolates chosen at random from the previously spa-typed collection. We found four novel deletions, deletion D (174 bp) in both bacteraemia and community strains, deletion L (183 bp) only in community strains, deletion H (705 bp) and deletion I/insertion C1 (531 bp/ 174 bp) only in bacteraemia isolates (Figure 3). The largest deletions of three to four IgG-binding domains were found only in S. aureus bacteraemia strains. Therefore,

the presence of different types of deletions and insertions in the spa-gene, identified by spaT3-F/1517R primers, demonstrates that S. aureus colonization/infection is highly complex. People may have a single strain without rearrangements, with deletions that do not affect spa-typing, or with rearrangements that do affect spa-typing. Alternatively, they may carry multiple strains without deletions ID-8 in any strain, with ‘hidden’ deletions that do not affect spa-typing in one or more strains, or with rearrangements that do affect spa-typing in one or more strains. Prevalence of spa-gene rearrangements in community and hospital strains Spa-typing of 3905 community S. aureus isolates and 2205 hospital isolates using the staged spa-typing protocol showed that 1.8% (n = 72) of samples from 1.8% community carriers and 0.6% (n = 14) of samples from 0.7% inpatients were formerly non-typeable (Table 1). Significantly more strains from individuals in the community were formerly non-typeable compared with hospital inpatients (p < 0.0001), and there was also a trend towards more individuals carrying formerly non-typeable strains in the community than hospital (p = 0.053).

Total RNA of tissue samples and cell lines were isolated by using

Total RNA of tissue samples and cell lines were isolated by using Trizol reagent according to the instruction manual (Invitrogen). Total RNA of leukocytes obtained from 2 ml selleck inhibitor of peripheral blood was isolated by using PURESCRIPT RNA Isolation Kit (Gentra systems). RT-PCR Five microgram of the total RNA was reverse transcribed using oligo-dT primer and SuperScript III (Invitrogen) according to the instruction manual. To confirm the expression of Rad18, primer sets, 5′-TTC, ACA, AAA, GGA, AGC, CGC, TG

(VX-680 cost forward) and 5′-TTA, CTG, AGG, TCA, TAT, TAT, CTT, C (reverse) were used to amplify 310 bp region of human Rad18 gene. PCR was carried out in a condition of, 3 min at 94°C for initial denaturing, followed by 35 cycles of amplification (94°C for

30 sec, 55°C for 30 sec, and 72°C for 30 sec) using GoTaq (Promega). The amplified products were visualized PRI-724 chemical structure on 1.2% agarose gel with ethidium bromide. GAPDH in the same samples was also amplified using 25 cycles PCR reaction as the internal control. The primer sets for GAPDH is 5′-TGA, CCA, CAG, TCC, ATG, CCA, TC (forward) and 5′-CCA, CCC, TGT, TGC, TGT, AGC, C (reverse). Fragment Southern Genomic DNA from human breast cancer cell line MCF7 and lung carcinoma cell line PC3 were isolated using TRIZOL according to the instruction manual. MCF7 was used as positive control which was confirmed that this cell line carry wild type Rad18 by RT-PCR direct sequencing (data not shown). Ten microgram of genomic DNA were digested by EcoRI or HindIII, electrophoresed on a 0.8% agarose gel and transferred to a Hybond-NX membrane (Amersham).

Full length cDNA clone of Rad18 was labeled using Psoralen-Biotin nonisotopic labeling kit (BrightStar) and hybridized in PEG-SDS including 100 μg/ml Salmon sperm DNA at 65°C. Detection was done using BioDetect nonisotopic detection kit (BrightStar) according to the instruction manual. Membrane was exposed to X-ray film and developed. RT-PCR SSCP and direct sequencing PJ34 HCl The primer sets for RT-PCR SSCP are shown in Table 1. Each primer sets were designed to partially overlap the next fragment with the length not more than 200 bp. Ten primer sets cover the whole open reading frame of Rad18 gene and partially, 5′ and 3′ non coding lesion. PCR condition is, 3 min at 94°C for initial denaturing, followed by 35 cycles of amplification (94°C for 30 sec, 55°C for 30 sec, and 72°C for 30 sec). Each sample was denatured 5 min at 95°C and rapidly chilled on ice and loaded into 10% acrylamide gel including 5.4% glycerol for 6 hours at 120V using MiniProtean3 (BioRad) at 4°C. After electrophoreses, gels were stained using Silver Stain Plus Kit according to the instruction manual (BioRad). All samples were screened for the presence of an aberrant band compared with reference sample. Samples with abnormal SSCP bands were directly sequenced by ABI 310. Cycle sequencing was performed using Big-Dye Terminator v3.1 (Applied Biosystems).

89 which suggest high reproducibility of the proteomic data (B)

89 which suggest high reproducibility of the proteomic data (B). Table 1 Comparative proteome profile of P. putida grown at 50 rpm and 150 rpm Locus tag Protein name Accession number Fold-change Protein function Up-regulated proteins (50 rpm/150 rpm) PP_0234 OprE gi|26986977 2.41* Outer membrane porin PP_0268

OprQ gi|26987010 1.80 Outer membrane porin PP_0465 RplX gi|26987206 1.61 50S ribosomal protein L24 PP_0812 CyoA gi|26987548 1.82 Ubiquinol oxidase subunit 2 PP_0988 GcvP-1 gi|26987724 2.53 Glycine SBE-��-CD price dehydrogenase PP_1037 PurL gi|26987773 1.59* Phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthase PP_1099   gi|26987835 1.74 Cold-shock domain-contain protein PP_1629 RecA gi|26988361 2.35* Recombinase A PP_1868   gi|26988598 WH-4-023 nmr 2.25* DEAD-box ATP dependent DNA helicase PP_1982 IbpA gi|26988708 8.33*

Heat shock protein Hsp20 PP_2468 RplT gi|26989191 1.64 50S ribosomal protein L20 PP_2645 MgtB gi|26989364 2.67* Magnesium-translocating P-type ATPase PP_2656 PstS gi|26989375 4.26* Phosphate ABC transporter, periplasmic phosphate-binding protein PP_4718 FtsH gi|26991401 2.04 ATP-dependent metalloprotease FtsH PP_4803 DacA gi|26991483 1.96* Serine-type D-Ala-D-Ala carboxypeptidase PP_5329 PstS gi|26992005 3.33* Phosphate ABC transporter phosphate-binding protein PP_0460   gi|24981839 1.65 Ribosomal protein S3 Down-regulated proteins (50 rpm/150 rpm) PP_0126   gi|26986871 0.37* Cytochrome c4 PP_0258   gi|26987000 0.21* Hypothetical protein PP_0258 PP_0296   gi|26987038

0.36* Glycine betaine/L-proline Selleckchem Autophagy Compound Library ABC transporter, periplasmic binding protein PP_0308   gi|26987050 0.37 Membrane dipeptidase PP_0315   gi|26987057 0.22 Rieske (2Fe-2S) domain protein PP_0322 GlyA-1 gi|26987064 0.44 Serine hydroxymethyltransferase PP_0328 FdhA gi|26987070 0.38* Formaldehyde dehydrogenase, glutathione-independent PP_0382   gi|26987124 0.41 Nitrilase/cyanide hydratase and apolipoprotein N-acyltransferase PP_0395   gi|26987137 0.19 Hypothetical protein PP_0395 PP_0397   gi|26987139 0.28* Putative Meloxicam serine protein kinase, PrkA PP_0541   gi|26987279 0.28 Acetyltransferase PP_0545   gi|26987283 0.43* Aldehyde dehydrogenase family protein PP_0763   gi|26987499 0.50 Acyl-CoA synthetase PP_0765   gi|26987501 0.45* Hypothetical protein PP_0765 PP_0951 RpoX gi|26987687 0.34* Sigma 54 modulation protein/ribosomal protein S30EA PP_0999 ArcC gi|26987735 0.23* Carbamate kinase PP_1000 ArgI gi|26987736 0.28* Ornithine carbamoyltransferase PP_1001 ArcA gi|26987737 0.24* Arginine deiminase PP_1015   gi|26987751 0.52 Sugar ABC transporter, periplasmic sugar-binding protein PP_1081   gi|26987817 0.44* Glutaredoxin-related protein PP_1084   gi|26987820 0.42 Anti-oxidant AhpCTSA family protein PP_1122   gi|26987858 0.22 OmpA/MotB domain protein PP_1210   gi|26987945 0.32* DNA-binding stress protein, putative PP_1478   gi|26988211 0.23* NADH:flavin oxidoreductase/NADH oxidase PP_1487   gi|26988220 0.40* Hypothetical protein PP_1487 PP_1506 Adk gi|26988238 0.

The above results together with the CV data suggest that the crys

The above results together with the CV data suggest that the crystal structure can be mainly retained upon the process of lithium extraction/insertion. Figure 6 Ex situ XRD patterns of the Li 2 NiTiO 4 /C electrode. (curve a) Uncharged, (curve b) charged to 4.9 V, (curve SC79 cell line c) discharged to 2.4 V, and (curve d) after 2 cycles, at 2.4 V. Conclusions Nanostructured Li2NiTiO4/C composite has been successfully prepared by a rapid molten salt method followed

by ball milling. Cyclic voltammetry together with the ex situ XRD analysis indicate that Li2NiTiO4 exhibits reversible extraction/insertion of lithium and retains the cubic structure during cycling. This Li2NiTiO4/C nanocomposite exhibits relatively high discharge capacities, superior capacity retentions, and rate

performances at room temperature and 50°C. The improved electrochemical performances can be ascribed to the nanoscale particle size, homogeneous carbon coating, and phase Temsirolimus cost retention upon cycling. Acknowledgement This work was supported by the Anhui Provincial Natural Science Foundation, China (No. 1308085QB41) and Special Foundation for Outstanding Young Scientists of Anhui Province, China (No. 2012SQRL226ZD). References 1. Świętosławski M, Molenda M, Furczoń K, Dziembaj R: Nanocomposite C/Li 2 MnSiO 4 cathode material for lithium ion batteries. J Power Sources 2013, 244:510–514.CrossRef 2. Li Y, Cheng X, Zhang Y: Achieving high capacity by vanadium substitution into Li 2 FeSiO 4 . J Electrochem Soc 2012, 159:A69-A74.CrossRef

3. Aono S, Tsurudo T, Urita K, Moriguchi I: Direct synthesis of novel homogeneous nanocomposites of Li 2 MnSiO 4 and carbon as a potential Li-ion battery cathode material. Chem Commun 2013, 49:2939–2941.CrossRef 4. Sebastian L, Gopalakrishnan J: Li 2 MTiO 4 (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni): new cation-disordered rocksalt oxides exhibiting oxidative deintercalation of lithium. Synthesis of an ordered Li 2 NiTiO 4 . J Solid State Chem 2003, 172:171–177.CrossRef 5. Kuezma M, Dominko R, Hanžel D, Kodre A, Arčon I, Meden A, Gaberšček M: Detailed in situ investigation of the electrochemical processes in Li 2 FeTiO 4 Cathodes. J Electrochem Soc 2009, 156:A809-A816.CrossRef 6. Dominko R, Vidal-Abraca Garrido C, Bele M, Kuezma M, Arcon I, Gaberscek M: Electrochemical characteristics Palbociclib cost of Li 2-x VTiO 4 rock salt phase in Li-ion batteries. J Power Sources 2011, 196:6856–6862.CrossRef 7. Küzma M, Dominko R, Meden A, Makovec D, Bele M, Jamnik J, Gaberšček M: Electrochemical activity of Li 2 FeTiO 4 and Li 2 MnTiO 4 as potential active materials for Li ion batteries: a comparison with Li 2 NiTiO 4 . J Power Sources 2009, 189:81–88.CrossRef 8. Yang M, Zhao X, Bian Y, Ma L, Ding Y, Shen X: Cation disordered rock salt phase Li 2 CoTiO 4 as a potential cathode material for Li-ion batteries. J Mater Chem 2012, 22:6200–6205.CrossRef 9.