In comparison with these residues, gum presented a significantly

In comparison with these residues, gum presented a significantly higher γ-oryzanol content; however, the highest content was found, by far, in the soap samples, largely differing from that of the other residues (14.2 mg g−1, representing 95.3% of the total γ-oryzanol distribution). This value agreed with

reported γ-oryzanol contents in crude RBO (12.4 mg g−1, Pestana et al., 2008), thus confirming that almost all the γ-oryzanol was precipitated during neutralisation. As indicated in Table 2, the sum of the amounts of γ-oryzanol found in all the residues, as well as in the final products of RBO refining (refined RBO and purified fatty acids), represented ca. 12.7% of the initial ZD1839 clinical trial amount of this phytochemical

Depsipeptide ic50 in crude RBO. The data given in Table 1 for γ-oryzanol agree with other reported values. Thus, according to Krishna, Khatoon, and Shiela (2001), the reduction of the γ-oryzanol content in RBO during neutralisation can be as large as 93–95.8%, whereas only small percentages are lost during degumming and dewaxing (1.1–2.3% and 2.0–5.9%, respectively). According to Orthoefer (1996) and Mishra, Gopalakrishna, and Prabhakar (1988), during neutralisation, high losses of neutral oil (18–22%), maximized by the synergistic effect of the precipitated soap and γ-oryzanol, occur. Both neutral oil and γ-oryzanol dragging, during soap precipitation upon neutralisation, can be due to the surfactant-like nature of soap, and probably the formation of emulsions in the precipitate. The γ-oryzanol content of 14.2 mg g−1 in the precipitated soap, given in Table 1, also agrees with the reported 12.2 mg g−1 (Scavariello, 1997). Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase This author also extracted γ-oryzanol from soap using acetone

at 10 °C for 60 min, obtaining an extract with 62.5 mg g−1 of γ-oryzanol. Finally, Krishna et al. (2001) indicated that bleaching and deodorising do not affect the γ-oryzanol content. Also according to literature reports, RBO refining produces large amounts of soap as a consequence of enzymatic activity of lipases, which largely increases the free fatty acid concentrations of crude RBO (De & Bhattacharyya, 1998). As illustrated in Fig. 2, the abundant soap residue is further treated to recover purified free fatty acids, which are then used by the cosmetics and cleaning industries. Thus, in order to support the development of procedures for γ-oryzanol recovery, its contents in the residues of soap processing should also be established. This point is further discussed in the next section. As also shown in Table 1, the δ-, (β + γ)- and α-tocopherol contents were separately quantified. With the exception of cast-off bleaching earth, all the other residues of RBO refining showed the following relative contents of the individual tocopherols: δ < (β + γ) < α. This order agreed with the reported values for crude RBO (Pestana et al., 2008).

The trans fatty acids content in milk represents

about 2%

The trans fatty acids content in milk represents

about 2% of total fatty acids, which can be increased to 4–10% of total fatty acids by enhancing dietary unsaturated oils content in the cow’s diet. Trans-vaccenic acid, known as (E)-11-octadecenoic acid (C18:1 trans-11, or TVA), is the main trans fatty acid isomer found in the fat of ruminants and in dairy products, such as milk and yogurts ( Santora, Palmquist, & Roehrig, 2000). It participates in CLA production, through enzymatic action of Δ-9-desaturase find more in mammary glands ( Gnädig et al., 2003), and contributes to the supply of human body CLA ( Butler et al., 2011). It is also an intermediate fatty acid of the CLA biohydrogenation pathway ( Bergamo, Fedeli, Iannibelli, & Marzillo, 2003). Finally, α-linolenic acid (ALA), the major omega-3 fatty acid in milk, has been related to an ability to exert anti-arrhythmic effects in the heart, a positive impact on neurological function (by limiting

central nervous system injury) and protection SKI-606 ic50 against coronary heart disease ( Barceló-Coblijn & Murphy, 2009). It is also the dietary precursor for three long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) synthesis: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ( Brenna, Salem, Sinclair, & Cunnane, 2009). Production of fermented milks, using bifidobacteria, is a big challenge in the dairy industry because milk, on the whole, is not a suitable matrix for the growth

of lactic and probiotic bacteria since they lack essential proteolytic activity (Oliveira, Sodini, Remeuf, & Corrieu, 2001). Interest in bifidobacteria for human health is related to their survival through the intestinal tract and to their role in stimulating the immune system and prevention of microbial gastroenteritis (Foligne et al., 2007 and Hols et al., 2005). In addition, CLA production by bifidobacteria was shown to be a possible mechanism for their health-enhancing properties (Oh et al., 2003). Until now, few studies have explored the effect of organic milk on the growth of bifidobacteria and Prostatic acid phosphatase yogurt starters. To our knowledge, only the work of Florence et al. (2009) describes the acidification profile, fatty acids contents, and chemical composition of organic and conventional milks fermented by bifidobacteria in co-culture with Streptococcus thermophilus. These authors detected higher protein and iron concentrations in organic fermented milks, although no difference was observed in the initial milk. In addition, they found higher relative concentrations of TVA and CLA in organic fermented milks. From this information, it seems that a better knowledge about acidification kinetics and milk composition of organic and conventional fermented milk products is needed. In this context, this study aimed at characterising the behaviour of bifidobacteria and yogurt starters during organic and conventional milk fermentation.

By scaling to a “standard” condition of T = 60 °C, 4 mg ml−1, pH

By scaling to a “standard” condition of T = 60 °C, 4 mg ml−1, pH 1.75, 25 mM NaCl and assuming a complete conversion into spherulites selleck inhibitor and fibrils, we can write a general expression for the radius as a function of concentration and the number as. equation(4) R(C,N)=CNNT=60CT=601/3RT=60 The top right inset in Fig. 7 shows that below ∼5 mg ml−1 the size experimental data (○) are well described by Eq. (4) (▵) indicating that below this concentration it is indeed the finite amount of protein that controls the final spherulite radius. Above 5 mg ml−1, although spherulite radii continue to increase, the number (see bottom left inset

in Fig. 7) and consequently the volume fraction of spherulites decreases significantly with increasing protein concentration. The precise reason for this reduction is unclear but fits well with our previous observations Ribociclib performed under similar conditions and high concentrations [34] and [45]. Importantly, this suggests that the shift in the balance between

fibrils and spherulites is related to a change in the number of spherulite precursors that are present in solution. This is influenced strongly by protein concentration. At protein concentrations greater than 5 mg ml−1, the volume fraction of spherulites present in solution decreases with a corresponding rise in free fibrils. Entanglement of a sufficient numbers of polymers may lead to gelation. In a solution of large numbers of free fibrils (>5 mg ml−1Fig. 7), entanglement of the fibrils would be expected to result in the formation of a percolating network and hence gel formation. Conversely, at lower protein concentrations the predominance of spherulites results in large amounts of protein being localised in small volumes

of the solution with less possibility of entanglement. The onset of gelation observed is therefore likely to be a consequence of the shift in the balance between spherulites and fibrils with concentration. In this work a comprehensive investigation Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase of amyloid spherulite formation in bovine insulin samples as a function of pH, salt, protein concentration and temperature has been presented. A new semi-quantitative methodology was developed to provide a statistically significant analysis of the final abundance of amyloid aggregates and the balance of aggregate morphologies. Such approach allowed us to extend the range of parameters studied (i.e. the number and volume fraction of spherulites) in comparison with earlier studies mainly focused on the growth rates and appearance times of isolated number of spherulites [23] and [27]. Moreover, the effect of the pH on the spherulite radius is here reported for the first time.

, 2007, Gordon and Waterhouse, 2007 and Mao et al , 2007) The to

, 2007, Gordon and Waterhouse, 2007 and Mao et al., 2007). The toxicity was due to the dsRNA being transmitted from plant tissues to the insects by ingestion,

and then being further Talazoparib chemical structure processed in the animal into an siRNA that silenced one or more genes essential for life, or essential for detoxifying natural plant toxins (i.e., gossypol in cotton). Others have used direct feeding of dsRNA or dsRNA in liposomes as insecticides (Chen et al., 2010 and Whyard et al., 2009). As with the human studies discussed above, there is evidence of selective uptake of miRNAs from food. A feeding study of insects found that some small RNAs that were less abundant in the plant were more abundant in the insects that fed on the plant (Zhang et al., 2012b). It also found that insects which fed on dicots seemed to accumulate a miRNA that was more suggestive of a monocot origin. As a meta-analysis of small RNA datasets, this study could not confirm the purity of diets or exposure routes for animals (e.g., ingestion, inhalation, soaking through skin). The authors suggested that many or most detections of plant miRNAs in animals occurred via contamination from non-dietary sources. While PF-02341066 cell line this is important speculation, contamination does not sufficiently explain all the results. The contamination source proposed by the authors was from the mixture of plant and animal

small RNA pools combined during multiplex sequencing. This can occur because of the capacity of the DNA sequencers to run reactions in parallel. However, that conclusion seems at odds with regular detection by others of miRNAs of plant origin that are not the most abundant plant miRNAs and assumes that all datasets assembled by others would have had the same mixture of plant and animal libraries used by the authors of the transcriptomic survey (Zhang et al., 2012b). The regulatory framework

for GM crops in Australia and New Zealand consists of a shared food safety regulator called FSANZ. Under the Food Safety Act, FSANZ must approve as safe all foods derived from PJ34 HCl GMOs, following an assessment based on “internationally recognized scientific, risk-based methods” (p. 411 Brent et al., 2003). FSANZ uses information provided by the developer of the GMO, but also the scientific literature, advice from independent scientists and the evaluations of regulators from other countries (Brent et al., 2003 and Hansard, 2008). The Centre for Integrated Research in Biosafety (INBI) has argued within the regulatory framework of Australia/New Zealand that as part of the legislated requirement for safety testing of GMOs, any potential novel dsRNA molecules should be described and then evaluated for causing physiological effects in the GM plant or on any consumer of the plant, be that insects, wildlife or humans (Heinemann, 2009 and Heinemann et al., 2011).

Non-native plants were generally sparse and subordinate in abunda

Non-native plants were generally sparse and subordinate in abundance to native species in both untreated forest and after cutting and prescribed fire, but long-term Ceritinib mw monitoring and precautionary non-native plant control warrant consideration if maintaining this status quo is a management goal. Based on our review of existing literature, further research needs include: (i) assessing effects of specific components of treatment operations (e.g., cutting intensity and residual spatial arrangements of trees, methods of slash treatment, grazing management) and their interaction on understory trajectories; (ii)

comparing responses in moist versus dry mixed conifer forest; (iii) evaluating long-term NLG919 ic50 similarities and differences between tree cutting and prescribed fire regimes and their combination; (iv) further identifying groups of native species benefiting from treatments or sensitive to treatment alternatives; (v) determining feasibility of forecasting treatment effects based on the initial plant community including seed bank composition; and (vi) more thoroughly understanding

influences of wildfires. For operational monitoring of projects, early monitoring is important to detect an initial surge in disturbance-promoted species (both native and non-native). However, the delayed increase in total understory plant cover and richness indicated that monitoring for at least 4 years after treatment is necessary to accurately appraise longer term trajectories of post-treatment understories.

Monitoring both total understory measures and management-priority groups of species (e.g., fire-stimulated flora, or shrubs for browse) is useful for identifying whether further management (e.g., non-native species control) can provide competitive advantages to desired species Urocanase groups. We conclude that native understory species, even if temporarily reduced in abundance, persist through tree cutting and prescribed fire and have benefited from these treatments after 5 years post-treatment, as long as forest overstories remain open. This review was funded by the Ecological Restoration Institute (ERI) through an agreement (organized by Wally Covington, Diane Vosick, and Kathleen Mitchell of the ERI) to Natural Resource Conservation LLC. We thank Meg Eastwood and Mary Dejong, librarians at Cline Library (Northern Arizona University) for help in performing batch systematic searching; authors of papers who responded to our inquiries regarding photos of study sites and supplemental information about their findings (Appendix B); Joe Crouse for developing the base map for Fig.

6, and

6, and R428 sessions are often spaced weeks apart (Bryan et al., 2012). While such brief and targeted services appropriately complement the fast-paced nature of primary care service delivery, they require a high degree of flexibility and an ability to adapt evidence-based treatments. Parent management training (PMT)

is a general term for interventions that teach parents skills for managing their children’s disruptive behavior ( Kazdin, 1997). PMT interventions are based on the premise that child disobedience, defiance, and coercion are often learned behavior problems inadvertently reinforced and modeled by parents who punish too harshly or fail to set firm limits ( Kazdin, 1987 and Patterson, 1982). There are several brands of PMT, but common to all is a focus on techniques derived from operant learning

principles, which often include components such as (a) praise, (b) selective attention, (c) time-out, and (d) token reward systems ( Eyberg, 1988, Afatinib Forehand and McMahon, 1981 and Webster-Stratton, 1987). In most programs, parents first learn skills designed to promote positive parent-child relationships and prosocial child behavior, followed by skills designed to promote effective parental discipline and a decrease in child misbehavior ( Cavell, 2000). PMT has been widely evaluated and outcome trials yield supportive results across a range of ages and problem behaviors (Brestan and Eyberg, 1998, Hautmann et al., 2009, Kazdin and Weisz, 1998 and van de Wiel et al., 2002). Outcomes point generally to reductions in problem behavior as reported by multiple informants (e.g., children, parents, and teachers), decreases in problem behavior to nonclinical levels, and maintenance of treatment gains over time (Kazdin, 1997). Meta-analytic studies provide strong evidence in support of Ribonucleotide reductase PMT’s efficacy (e.g., Serketich & Dumas, 1996). Serketich and Dumas found that posttreatment effect sizes ranged from 0.73 to 0.84. Recent meta-analytic studies yielded more limited effect sizes (e.g., 0.30 to .47 for child outcomes), but demonstrate clear evidence for the efficacy of PMT when used to treat child behavior problems (Kaminski et al., 2008, Lundahl et al., 2006, Maughan

et al., 2005, McCart et al., 2006 and Piquero et al., 2009). Berkout and Gross (2013) provide a comprehensive overview of studies that examine well-known, established treatment protocols (e.g., the Incredible Years program, Parent Child Interaction Therapy [PCIT], Triple P–Positive Parenting Program) used to target externalizing behavior problems in primary care settings. Results across studies were promising in terms of reducing problematic behaviors in children. Most studies utilized modified or truncated versions of the original manualized protocols in order to adapt to primary care settings. Still, many aspects of these protocols do not readily lend themselves to adaptation of the integrated behavioral health care (IBHC) service delivery approach previously described.

The role of the encoded protein was then unknown but the amino ac

The role of the encoded protein was then unknown but the amino acid mutation

(Leu335Pro) is in the middle of the protein. Similarly, Biron’s group detected resistance CB-839 due to mutations in the UL27 gene. Further research studies on maribavir have been summarized in previous ICAR scientific reports. Cyclopropavir (CPV, Fig. 3) was synthesized in the laboratory of Jiri Zemlicka, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, Michigan. It is a guanosine nucleoside analog which is very active against HCMV. Unlike the benzimidazole nucleosides, it also inhibits Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). Like GCV, it is phosphorylated by the kinase encoded by UL97. It is more potent in vitro and in vivo than ganciclovir but has a somewhat different pattern of resistance. In one resistant strain, the key mutation formed a stop codon resulting in a truncated pUL97 kinase protein. The phosphorylation of CPV by pUL97 is more efficient than that of GCV, with a considerably lower Km and higher Vmax. Interestingly, the phosphorylation of CPV to its monophosphate (CPV-MP) selleck by pUL97 is stereoselective; only the (+) isomer of CPV-MP is formed. A single enzyme, GMP kinase, phosphorylates CPM-MP to both its di- and triphosphates. In contrast, acyclovir and GCV require additional cellular enzymes to convert their diphosphates to active triphosphates. Cyclopropavir

is currently in Phase I clinical trials for the treatment of HCMV infections. Piet Herdewijn, Rega Institute for Medical Research, KU Leuven, Belgium (Fig. 4). The 2013 ICAR began with a symposium, on the legacy of the late Antonín (Tony) Holý, at which the establishment of a new ISAR award in medicinal chemistry Immune system was announced. The awardee is to be a senior scientist of international stature in medicinal chemistry and who has made innovative contributions impacting antiviral drug discovery or development. Piet is, therefore, the first to receive this award. In the late 1970s, the potent activities of BVDU and BVaraU against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) were discovered; this work motivated Piet to start antiviral

research with the synthesis of carbocyclic BVDU. Through to the early 1990s, he synthesized several other nucleoside analogs with bicyclic bases having good activity against HSV-1 and VZV. During the 1990s, emphasis switched to investigating the effect of modifying the sugar ring, in particular the synthesis of six-membered rings containing an oxygen or a double bond. Piet showed examples of compounds with activity against HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV and HCMV. Back in 1984, Erik De Clercq showed Piet a paper on AIDS, one of the authors being Phil Furman. This publication stimulated the search for anti-HIV compounds. Many compounds were discovered with potent activities (and good selectivity indices) against HIV. Piet worked out the first structure–activity relationships of anti-HIV dideoxy nucleosides.

Within this observation remains the caveat that a substantial por

Within this observation remains the caveat that a substantial portion of the suspended load is mineral-bound P, and may not be immediately available to lake phytoplankton and is instead likely rapidly exported to the sediments. Moreover, variations within the data suggest some seasonality, with TN:TP relationships being generally lower in these samples during the August to October period each year. The result is that these inputs provide for variable molar TN:TP ratios (from < 25 to > 100) in both the waters at the very entrance of Lake Erie as well as farther into the western basin (Chaffin

et al., 2013). Overall the data continue to suggest a potential cryptic yet seasonal role for N input than historical theories dictate as well as GSK1120212 nmr support for seasonal variations in limiting nutrients (Chaffin et al., 2013 and Hartig and Wallen, 1984). We are indebted to Dr. Peter Richards for bringing the error to our attention and working with us in correcting it. “
“Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) often require mechanical ventilatory support using positive pressure ventilation (Rouby et al., 2004). Estimation of lung variables benefits these patients because they help the clinician to determine the most suitable values in therapeutic measures such as positive end-expired pressure (PEEP). They could also help to avoid the common

problem of ventilator induced lung injury (VILI). Three key lung variables are: 1. alveolar

volume many at the end of an expiration, VA Current techniques for measuring these variables can require the cooperation of the patient, or selleck a modification of the patient’s ventilator system. ICU patients depend on complex life support and monitoring equipment, and thus are usually unable to cooperate with the physician. These patients are therefore some of the most difficult to assess using conventional lung function tests. Zwart et al. pioneered the non-invasive oscillating gas-forcing technique (Zwart et al., 1976 and Zwart et al., 1978), and used halothane as the forcing gas at a very low concentration (around 0.02, v/vv/v) to measure the average ventilation-perfusion ratio ( V˙/Q˙) in the lung. Hahn et al. further developed this method by using biologically inert gases such as nitrous oxide (N2O) and argon (instead of halothane) to measure V  A, V  D, and Q˙P non-invasively ( Hahn et al., 1993 and Williams et al., 1994). They later proposed that oxygen (O2) can be used to measure V  A and V  D ( Hahn, 1996 and Hamilton, 1998). When O2 was used together with N2O, their model can also be used to measure Q˙P. However, their initial technique required a respiratory mass spectrometer that presented considerable difficulty when used in the ICU due to its size, noise, complexity, high maintenance requirements, and lack of portability ( Farmery, 2008). Moreover, their prototype gas mixer is not compatible with modern ICU ventilators.

52 cmolc/kg; Mg2+: 0 64 cmolc/kg) than in the P  densiflora stand

52 cmolc/kg; Mg2+: 0.64 cmolc/kg) than in the P. densiflora stand (Ca2+: 0.64 cmolc/kg; Mg2+: 0.25 cmolc/kg) sites ( Fig. 2). The soil bulk density of cultivation sites generally decreased with increased elevation (Fig. 3) and was significantly lower in the >700-m sites (0.73 g/cm3) than in the < 700-m sites (0.85–0.96 g/cm3). Except for the solid phase, the other soil phases were not significantly different among elevation sites.

The soil pH was significantly this website lower in the > 700-m sites (pH 4.19) than in the < 700-m sites (pH 4.52–4.55). The organic C content was significantly higher in the >700-m sites (6.12%) than in the 300–700-m sites (3.20%). The C/N ratio ranged from 13.7 to 16.1. Other nutrients (N, P, K, and Ca), except for Mg, were not significantly different among elevation sites (Fig. 4). Stand site types in mountain-cultivated ginseng may influence the growth of ginseng because soil nutrients can be changed after stand establishment by different nutrient requirements and nutrient cycling mechanisms of different

tree species. Mountain-cultivated ginseng has adapted to Selleckchem Venetoclax various overstory vegetation types, such as coniferous, mixed, and deciduous broad-leaved stands. Past studies have shown that mountain-cultivated ginseng in Korea grows better in deciduous broad-leaved forests than in mixed forest and pine forest types [7], [10] and [11]. This study revealed notable differences in the soil properties of cultivation sites for mountain-cultivated ginseng. The high bulk density of the P. densiflora stand sites and low-elevation sites may be due to a low organic C content compared with

the other cultivation sites because the soil bulk density was affected by Gamma-secretase inhibitor soil organic C content [12]. Also the high proportion of the liquid phase in deciduous broad-leaved and mixed stand sites compared with the P. densiflora stand sites was due to the high organic C content that directly and indirectly influenced the soil water content. The high bulk density in the P. densiflora stand sites and low-elevation sites may affect the establishment and growth of ginseng seedlings because a high bulk density may induce a reduction of seedling growth [13]. The soil pH was unaffected by stand site types (pH 4.35–4.55), but the high-elevation sites (>700 m) were strongly acidified, with pH 4.19. The soil pH in forest stands depends on the uptake of cations and anions by vegetation, the nitrification potential, and the soil buffering capacity, among others [13]. However, the low soil pH in the >700-m sites may be due to humic acid with a high organic C content. The pH values in all of the study sites were lower than the optimum soil pH (pH 5.5–6.0) for American ginseng growth [1] and [6]. The organic C and total N contents were lower in the P. densiflora than in the deciduous broad-leaved stand sites, while the C/N ratio was highest in the P. densiflora stand sites.

] Radiocarbon-dated fluvial deposits of old channel belts in lowe

] Radiocarbon-dated fluvial deposits of old channel belts in lower Sindh indicate that aggradation on the megaridge was minimal during the late Holocene. This relative stability of the late Holocene landscape suggests that the abandoned Khaipur and maybe the Western Nara courses are likely older than ∼2700 years and secondary in importance in historical times (Giosan et al., 2012). The complex processes occurring along the Holocene Indus must, as well, have occurred high throughput screening in the context of environmental and climate variability. Pollen studies

from a core recovered from the Arabian Sea off the Makran Coast (24°509 N, 65°559 E; 695 m depth) show an end of more humid conditions, linked to a weakening of the monsoon, between 4700 and 4200 BP (Ivory and Lézine, 2009). From tree ring analysis, Ahmed and Cook (2011) conclude, as regards to current water supply along the Indus: “Perhaps the most worrying feature in the streamflow reconstruction is the occurrence of a pronounced and prolonged 112 year low-flow period from AD 1572 to 1683 (median: 3404 m3/s) and a shorter but much drier 27 year period from AD 1637 to 1663 (median: 3292 m3/s). The former is ∼7% below and the latter ∼10% below the median of the observed discharge record”. These initial

inferences and numerical estimates form a useful Holocene context to the larger changes of the Anthropocene; they constitute the “natural” environmental variability on top of which the human-driven changes are occurring. The Indus River presently feeds the world’s largest irrigation system (Fahlbusch et al., 2004). The Pakistan irrigation system is comprised of 3 major storage reservoirs, 19 barrages, and 43 major canals with a total conveyance length of 57,000 km. There are 89,000 watercourses with a running length of more than 1.65 million km (Inam et al., 2007). Major modifications to natural flows started as early as 1762 when the Phuram River at Mora was dammed as an act of aggression by Ghulam Shah Kalora to destroy crop production in

the Rann of Kachchh. The Mora Bund apparently still permitted seasonal flow of the river and additional Gefitinib mw dams were constructed downstream until in 1783, when the Aly Bundar dam successfully closed the southward egress of the eastern Nara to the sea at Lakput. River traffic between 1762 and 1826 was undertaken by barges between the dams until a flood destroyed all the dams in 1826, including the natural Allah Bund (a reverse fault scarp ridge) associated with the 1819 earthquake (Burnes, 1828). Development of the modern system began in 1859 when the Eastern Nara Canal, from Sukkur to the Eastern Nara River, changed the Eastern Nara from an overflow channel into a perennial branch of the Indus. The human footprint includes: 1. Construction of artificial levees to protect agricultural lands from inundation by floodwaters of the Indus, which started in 1869 near Sukkur (Asianics Agro-Dev 2000).